Clinical Research Papers:

Association between gallbladder stone disease and prostate cancer: A nationwide population-based study

Chien-Hua Chen _, Cheng-Li Lin and Chia-Hung Kao

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:64380-64389. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9062

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Chien-Hua Chen1,2,3, Cheng-Li Lin4,5, Chia-Hung Kao6,7

1Digestive Disease Center, Show-Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan

2Department of Food Science and Technology, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, Taiwan

3Chung Chou University of Science and Technology, Yuanlin Township, Changhua, Taiwan

4Management Office for Health Data, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

5College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

6Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

7Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Correspondence to:

Chia-Hung Kao, email: [email protected]

Keywords: metabolic disorder, gallbladder stone disease, prostate cancer

Received: February 05, 2016    Accepted: April 16, 2016    Published: April 27, 2016


Objectives: Chronic inflammation and abnormal cholesterol metabolism are involved in the pathogenesis of gallbladder stone disease (GSD) and that of prostate cancer in experimental studies. We assessed the association between GSD and prostate cancer in this population-based study.

Results: The cumulative incidence of prostate cancer (log-rank test: P <.001) and the risk of prostate cancer (1.64 vs 1.14 per 10 000 person-y, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.39) were greater in the patients with GSD than in those without GSD. Furthermore, the risk of prostate cancer increased with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD, particularly after 9 years of follow-up (aHR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.74-2.19).

Materials and Methods: We identified 9496 patients who were diagnosed with GSD between 1998 and 2011 from Taiwan’s Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 as the study cohort. We randomly selected 37 983 controls from the non-GSD population and used frequency matching by age, sex, and index year for the control cohort. All patient cases were followed until the end of 2011 to measure the incidence of prostate cancer.

Conclusion: GSD is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, and the risk increases with the time of follow-up after a diagnosis of GSD.

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