Mitochondrial pathway is involved in the protective effects of alpha-ketoglutarate on hydrogen peroxide induced damage to intestinal cells
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Qian Jiang1,2,*, Gang Liu1,3,*, Xiuqi Wang4, Yongqing Hou5, Yehui Duan1,2, Guoyao Wu1,6,7, Yulong Yin1,3,8 and Kang Yao1,3,8
1Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hunan Provincial Engineering Research Center for Healthy Livestock and Poultry Production, Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science in South-Central, Ministry of Agriculture, Changsha 410125, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
3Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center for Utilization of Botanical Functional Ingredients, Hunan Collaborative Innovation Center of Animal Production Safety, Changsha 410128, China
4College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University/National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong Province, China
5Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Wuhan Polytechnic University, 430023 Wuhan, China
6Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
7Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Animal Nutrition and Feed Safety, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023, China
8College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this research
Kang Yao, email: [email protected]
Keywords: alpha-ketoglutarate, oxidative damage, cell apoptosis, mitochondrial respiration, intestinal porcine epithelial cells
Received: May 05, 2017 Accepted: June 19, 2017 Published: August 24, 2017
Alpha-ketoglutarate, a key intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been reported to benefit intestinal health. We tested whether alpha-ketoglutarate can protect intestinal cells against hydrogen peroxide induced damage and aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism. Intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium-High glucose with or without alpha-ketoglutarate and hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability, proliferation, mitochondrial respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, antioxidant function, apoptosis and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways were determined. Our experiments demonstrated that, first, exposure to 100μM hydrogen peroxide decreased cell viability, DNA synthesis, mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant function, and increased apoptosis. Second, 2mM alpha-ketoglutarate addition attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced cell cycle arrest, and improved cell viability, DNA synthesis, mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant function. Third, alpha-ketoglutarate enhanced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, mitochondrial respiration, and decrease the intracellular content of reactive oxygen species. Finally, alpha-ketoglutarate stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential, increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, decreased the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3, thereby prevented cell apoptosis. Altogether, we proposed that alpha-ketoglutarate protects intestinal cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced damage partly via mitochondria dependent pathway.
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