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Polymorphisms of VDR gene and risk of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma in Chinese population

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:45531-45543. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17270

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Jun Yin, Huiwen Pan, Tao Long, Lu Lv, Peng Zhai, Chao Liu, Aizhong Shao, Yijun Shi, Yangyong Sun, Jingfeng Zhu, Liming Wang, Guowen Ding, Suocheng Chen, Weifeng Tang, Cheng Qian, Lijie Tan and Haiyong Gu _

Abstract

Jun Yin1,*, Huiwen Pan1,*, Tao Long1,*, Lu Lv1, Peng Zhai1, Chao Liu1, Aizhong Shao1, Yijun Shi1, Yangyong Sun1, Jingfeng Zhu1, Liming Wang2, Guowen Ding1, Suocheng Chen1, Weifeng Tang1, Cheng Qian3, Lijie Tan3 and Haiyong Gu1

1Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated People’s Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

2Department of Chemotherapy, Cancer Institute, Affiliated People’s Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

*These authors have contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Haiyong Gu, email: [email protected]

Jun Yin, email: [email protected]

Lijie Tan, email: [email protected]

Keywords: VDR polymorphisms, gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma, association

Received: September 06, 2016    Accepted: March 29, 2017    Published: April 20, 2017

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have been reported to increase susceptibility to some malignant tumors, yet the effect on gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma susceptibility remains unknown. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study to examine the correlation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR rs2107301T>C, rs2228570C>T, rs1989969C>T and rs11568820 G>A and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma susceptibility. A total 330 cases and 608 controls were enrolled in the study. Using ligation detection reaction, we found that the variant alleles of the four polymorphisms were not associated with risk of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma. Further stratified analyses showed that there was an increased risk associated with VDR rs1989969 polymorphism among patients who were drinking or aged <60. The haplotypes VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 reduced the susceptibility. This study demonstrated that VDR rs1989969 polymorphism was involved in the carcinogenesis of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma, especially increased the risk in the younger and alcohol drinking Chinese population.


Polymorphisms of <i>VDR</i> gene and risk of gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma in Chinese population | Yin | Oncotarget

INTRODUCTION

Gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) remains one of the most common malignant tumor worldwide [1]. Although the incidence of noncardia gastric cancer has declined steadily, the incidence and mortality of GCA are continuously increasing [2]. The etiology of GCA comprises interactions of multiple environmental and genetic factors. Environmental factors including cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption [3, 4], as well as genetic factors such as gene polymorphisms, have been implicated with GCA. Yet, the underlying etiological mechanisms of GCA are not fully understood.

The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is the hormonally active form of vitamin D, which has been shown to inhibit prostate, breast and colon cancer cell progression [5]. Consistently, amounting evidence has indicated the correlation of the Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) and cancer. The antineoplastic effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 requires the expression of VDR in tumor cells [6]. Increased tumor VDR expression is associated with a better prognosis in various types of cancer [7, 8]. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR (ApaI [rs7975232], BsmI [rs1544410], FokI [rs10735810], TaqI [rs731236] and cancer risk has been reported, yet the results were inconclusive [6, 912].

In our previous study, we have investigated the correlation of four SNPs VDR rs11568820 G>A, VDR rs1989969 C>T, VDR rs2107301 T>C and VDR rs2228570 C>T with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma development, and found that VDR rs2107301 T>C polymorphism with alcohol drinking enhanced the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma [13]. Considering GCA occurs in the immediate vicinity of esophagus, we hypothesized that these four SNPs are also related to GCA. Here, we performed a hospital-based case-control study to examine the genetic effects of these four SNPs on the development of GCA.

RESULTS

Characteristics of the study subjects

The characteristics of the study subjects, including demographics and environmental risk factors, are presented in Table 1. The cases and controls were well matched in gender and age (χ2 test, p=0.746 and 0.965, respectively). However, tobacco smoking rate was much higher in GCA patients as compared with the control subjects (36.67% vs. 27.96%, p=0.006). Alcohol drinking rate was higher, yet not significantly, in GCA patients than in control subjects (29.39% vs. 23.01%, p=0.072).

Table 1: Distribution of selected demographic variables and risk factors in GCA cases and controls

Variable

Cases (n = 330)

Controls (n = 608)

pa

n

%

n

%

Age (years) mean ± SD

65.06 (±8.37)

64.19 (±6.66)

0.103

Age (years)

0.746

 < 60

89

26.97

170

27.96

 ≥ 60

241

73.03

438

72.04

Sex

0.965

 Male

223

67.58

410

67.43

 Female

107

32.42

198

32.57

Tobacco use

0.006

 Never

209

63.33

438

72.04

 Ever

121

36.67

170

27.96

Alcohol use

0.072

 Never

233

70.61

462

75.99

 Ever

97

29.39

146

24.01

a Two-sided χ2 test and student t test; Bold values are statistically significant (p <0.05).

As shown in Table 2, the genotyping successful rates were ranging from 95.76% to 100.0% in GCA cases and from 95.39 to 99.18% in controls. Compared with the minor allele frequency (MAF) for Chinese in database for all four SNPs loci, the MAF in our controls was similar (Table 2). In the control subjects, the genotype frequencies for these four polymorphisms reached Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p-value for HWE, all p>0.05, Table 2).

Table 2: Primary information for VDR rs2107301 T>C, rs2228570 C>T, rs1989969 C>T and rs11568820 G>A polymorphisms

Genotyped SNPs

VDR rs2107301 T>C

VDR rs2228570 C>T

VDR rs1989969 C>T

VDR rs11568820 G>A

Chromosome

12

12

12

12

Gene (ID)

VDR (7421)

VDR (7421)

VDR (7421)

VDR (7421)

Function

Intron region

Missense

Intron region

Intergene region

Chr Pos (Genome Build 36.3)

46541837

46559162

46564277

46588812

Regulome DB Scorea

5

5

No data

No data

TFBSb

Y

Splicing (ESE or ESS)

Y

nsSNP

Y

MAFc for Chinese in database

0.291

0.482

0.330

0.453

MAF in our controls (n = 608)

0.297

0.456

0.323

0.433

p value for HWEd test in our controls

0.690

0.347

0.718

0.574

Genotyping methode

LDR

LDR

LDR

LDR

% Genotyping value

95.52%

95.52%

98.19%

98.08%

a http://www.regulomedb.org/;

b TFBS: Transcription Factor Binding Site (http://snpinfo.niehs.nih.gov/snpinfo/snpfunc.htm);

c MAF: minor allele frequency;

d HWE: Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium;

e LDR: ligation detection reaction.

Associations between risk of GCA and four polymorphisms

As demonstrated in Table 3, the single locus analyses showed no statistically significant difference in genotype frequencies of four SNPs between the cases and the controls (p>0.05). There are no correlation between these four polymorphic sites with the risk of GCA as evaluated by the logistic regression analyses (Table 3).

Table 3: Logistic regression analyses of associations between VDR rs2107301 T>C, rs2228570 C>T, rs1989969 C>T and rs11568820 G>A polymorphisms and risk of GCA

Genotype

Cases (n = 330)

Controls (n = 608)

Crude OR (95%CI)

p

Adjusted OR a (95%CI)

p

n

%

n

%

VDR rs2107301 T>C

 TT

155

49.05

285

49.14

1.00

1.00

 TC

129

40.82

246

42.41

0.96 (0.72-1.29)

0.805

0.97 (0.72-1.29)

0.819

 CC

32

10.13

49

8.45

1.20 (0.74-1.95)

0.461

1.19 (0.73-1.95)

0.492

CC vs. TC vs. TT

0.683

 TC+CC

161

50.95

295

50.86

1.00 (0.76-1.32)

0.980

1.00 (0.76-1.32)

0.982

 TT+TC

284

89.87

531

91.55

1.00

1.00

 CC

32

10.13

49

8.45

1.22 (0.77-1.95)

0.403

1.21 (0.75-1.94)

0.436

 C allele

193

30.54

344

29.66

VDR rs2228570 C>T

 CC

97

30.70

166

28.62

1.00

1.00

 CT

153

48.42

299

51.55

0.88 (0.64-1.20)

0.412

0.89 (0.65-1.23)

0.488

 TT

66

20.89

115

19.83

0.98 (0.66-1.46)

0.928

0.97 (0.65-1.45)

0.895

TT vs. CT vs. CC

0.666

 CT+TT

219

69.30

414

71.38

0.91 (0.67-1.22)

0.515

0.92 (0.68-1.24)

0.567

 CC+CT

250

79.11

465

80.17

1.00

1.00

 TT

66

20.89

115

19.83

1.07 (0.76-1.50)

0.706

1.05 (0.74-1.47)

0.799

 T allele

285

45.09

529

45.60

VDR rs1989969 C>T

 CC

135

42.45

278

46.10

1.00

1.00

 CT

140

44.03

260

43.12

1.11 (0.83-1.48)

0.486

1.10 (0.82-1.48)

0.521

 TT

43

13.52

65

10.78

1.36 (0.88-2.11)

0.165

1.36 (0.88-2.11)

0.172

TT vs. CT vs. CC

0.369

 CT+TT

183

57.55

325

53.90

1.16 (0.88-1.53)

0.290

1.15 (0.87-1.52)

0.314

 CC+CT

275

86.48

538

89.22

1.00

1.00

 TT

43

13.52

65

10.78

1.29 (0.86-1.95)

0.220

1.30 (0.86-1.96)

0.221

 T allele

226

35.53

390

32.34

VDR rs11568820 G>A

 GG

99

30.00

193

32.71

1.00

1.00

 GA

162

49.09

283

47.97

1.12 (0.82-1.52)

0.488

1.11 (0.81-1.53)

0.500

 AA

69

20.91

114

19.32

1.18 (0.80-1.73)

0.399

1.20 (0.81-1.77)

0.361

AA vs. GA vs. GG

0.666

 GA+AA

231

70.00

397

67.29

1.13 (0.85-1.52)

0.397

1.14 (0.85-1.53)

0.390

 GG+GA

261

79.09

476

80.68

1.00

1.00

 AA

69

20.91

114

19.32

1.10 (0.79-1.54)

0.563

1.12 (0.80-1.58)

0.503

 A allele

300

45.45

511

43.31

a Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and alcohol consumption.

Stratification analyses of four polymorphisms and risk of GCA

To further assess the effects of VDR rs11568820 G>A, rs1989969 C>T, rs2107301 T>C and rs2228570 C>T on GCA risk according to different sex, smoking, age and alcohol drinking status, stratification analyses were conducted as shown in Tables 47, respectively. In association with the VDR rs1989969 C>T polymorphism, we further identified two significantly increased risk factors of GCA, which are age<60 or alcohol drinking.

Table 4: Stratified analyses between VDR rs1989969 C>T polymorphism and GCA risk by sex, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption

Variable

VDR rs1989969 C > T (case/control)a

Adjusted ORb (95% CI); p; phc

CC

CT

TT

CT+TT

CC

CT

TT

CT+TT

TT vs. (CT+CC)

Sex

 Male

92/189

98/170

28/46

126/216

1.00

1.19 (0.83-1.69); p: 0.345; ph:0.523

1.26 (0.74-2.14); p: 0.405; ph:0.575

1.20 (0.86-1.68); p: 0.283; ph:0.734

1.15 (0.70-1.91); p: 0.579; ph:0.412

 Female

43/89

42/90

15/19

57/109

1.00

1.00 (0.59-1.70); p: 0.999; ph:0.523

1.67 (0.76-3.66); p: 0.199; ph:0.575

1.12 (0.68-1.84); p: 0.660; ph:0.734

1.67 (0.80-3.50); p: 0.172; ph:0.412

Age

 <60

31/90

42/65

15/14

57/79

1.00

1.85 (1.03-3.33); p: 0.041; ph:0.031

2.97 (1.24-7.13); p: 0.015; ph:0.023

2.05 (1.18-3.57); p: 0.011; ph:0.010

2.19 (0.97-4.97); p: 0.060; ph:0.096

 ≥60

104/188

98/195

28/51

126/246

1.00

0.90 (0.64-1.27); p: 0.560; ph:0.031

0.99 (0.59-1.67); p: 0.977; ph:0.023

0.92 (0.67-1.27); p: 0.621; ph:0.010

1.04 (0.64-1.71); p: 0.865; ph:0.096

Smoking status

 Never

88/197

87/189

25/48

112/237

1.00

1.01 (0.70-1.46); p: 0.962; ph:0.482

1.12 (0.64-1.97); p: 0.696; ph:0.345

1.03 (0.73-1.46); p: 0.863; ph:0.359

1.11 (0.65-1.90); p: 0.692; ph:0.451

 Ever

47/81

53/71

18/17

71/88

1.00

1.24 (0.74-2.10); p: 0.415; ph:0.482

1.90 (0.87-4.15); p: 0.107; ph:0.345

1.37 (0.84-2.24); p: 0.213; ph:0.359

1.71 (0.82-3.56); p: 0.154; ph:0.451

Alcohol consumption

 Never

99/205

93/206

30/47

123/253

1.00

0.90 (0.63-1.27); p: 0.538; ph:0.057

1.31 (0.77-2.23); p: 0.315; ph:0.835

0.97 (0.70-1.35); p: 0.865; ph:0.100

1.39 (0.84-2.28); p: 0.202; ph:0.647

 Ever

36/73

47/54

13/18

60/72

1.00

1.90 (1.04-3.46); p: 0.036; ph:0.057

1.45 (0.60-3.50); p: 0.409; ph:0.835

1.78 (1.01-3.14); p: 0.045; ph:0.100

1.05 (0.46-2.40); p: 0.903; ph:0.647

a The genotyping was successful in 318 (96.36%) GCA cases and 603 (99.18%) controls for VDR rs1989969 C>T;

b Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and alcohol consumption (besides stratified factors accordingly) in a logistic regression model;

c ph for heterogeneity; Bold values are statistically significant (p <0.05).

Table 5: Stratified analyses between VDR rs2228570 polymorphism and GCA risk by sex, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption

Variable

VDR rs2228570 (case/control)a

Adjusted ORb (95% CI); p; phc

CT

CC

TT

CT+TT

TT

CT

CC

CT+CC

CC vs. (CT+TT)

Sex

 Male

101/205

71/113

40/73

141/278

1.00

1.112 (0.71-1.71); p: 0.646; ph:0.572

0.872 (0.54-1.42); p:0.581; ph:0.559

1.013 (0.66-1.55); p:0.953; ph:0.965

0.807 (0.56-1.16); p: 0.242; ph:0.984

 Female

52/94

26/53

26/42

78/136

1.00

0.894 (0.49-1.62); p:0.711; ph: 0.572

0.792 (0.40-1.56); p:0.501; ph:0.559

0.857 (0.49-1.50); p:0.590; ph:0.965

0.855 (0.49-1.48); p: 0.574; ph:0.984

Age

 <60

45/78

25/48

15/33

60/111

1.00

1.269 (0.62-2.58); p:0.511; ph:0.945

1.146 (0.53-2.49); p: 0.732; ph:0.245

1.222 (0.62-2.40); p:0.561; ph:0.746

1.038 (0.58-1.85); p:0.900; ph:0.741

 ≥60

108/221

72/118

51/82

159/303

1.00

0.786 (0.52-1.19); p:0.258; ph:0.945

0.981 (0.62-1.55); p: 0.935; ph:0.245

0.854 (0.58-1.27); p: 0.431; ph:0746

1.163 (0.82-1.65); p: 0.399; ph:0.741

Smoking status

 Never

108/221

69/117

45/78

153/299

1.00

0.847 (0.55-1.31); p:0.452; ph:0.062

1.022 (0.64-1.64); p:0.927; ph:0.722

0.908 (0.60-1.37); p:0.643; ph:0.788

0.868 (0.61-1.24); p:0.43; ph:0.200

 Ever

45/78

28/49

21/37

66/115

1.00

1.016 (0.53-1.95); p:0.961; ph:0.062

1.007 (0.49-2.04); p:0.985; ph:0.722

1.013 (0.55-1.86); p:0.967; ph:0.788

1.004 (0.58-1.75); p:0.988; ph:0.200

Alcohol consumption

 Never

122/228

72/125

50/86

172/314

1.00

0.920 (0.61-1.39); p:0.693; ph:0.051

0.991(0.63-1.56); p:0.968; ph:0.893

0.945(0.64-1.39); p:0.777; ph:0.513

0.951 (0.67-1.34); p:0.775; ph:0.143

 Ever

31/71

25/41

16/29

47/100

1.00

0.791 ( 0.37-1.66); p:0.536;ph:0.051

1.105 (0.50-2.43); p:0.803; ph:0.893

0.906 (0.45-1.80); p:0.78; ph:0.513

0.771 (0. 42-1.41); p:0.399; ph:0.143

a The genotyping was successful in 316 (95.75%) GCA cases and 603 (95.70%) controls VDR rs2228570 C>T;

b Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and alcohol consumption (besides stratified factors accordingly) in a logistic regression model;

c ph for heterogeneity; bold values are statistically significant (p <0.05).

Table 6: Stratified analyses between VDR rs2107301 polymorphism and GCA risk by sex, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption

Variable

VDR rs2107301 (case/control)a

Adjusted ORb (95% CI); p; phc

CC

CT

TT

CT+TT

CC

CT

TT

CT+TT

TT vs. (CT+CC)

Sex

 Male

21/30

86/174

105/187

191/361

1.00

0.706 (0.38-1.31); p:0.266; ph:0.947

0.802 (0.437-1.47); p:0.476; ph:0.510

0.756 (0.421-1.36); p:0.756; ph:0.983

0.934 (0.669-1.31); p:0.669; ph:0.995

 Female

11/19

43/72

50/98

93/170

1.00

1.032 (0.45-2.37); p:0.942; ph: 0.947

0.881 (0.39-1.99); p:0.762; ph: 0.510

0.945 (0.43-2.07); p:0.887; ph: 0.983

1.163 (0.72-1.88); p:0.536; ph:0.995

Age

 <60

9/15

36/71

40/73

76/144

1.00

0.845 (0.34-2.12); P:0.719; ph: 0.607

0.913 (0.37-2.27); p:0.845; ph:0.784

0.880 (0.37-2.1); p:0.773; ph:0.735

0.955 (0.56-1.62); p:0.864; ph:0.746

 ≥60

23/34

93/175

115/212

208/387

1.00

0.786 (0.44-1.41); p:0.419; ph0.607

0.802 (0.45-1.43); p:0.452; ph: 0.784

0.795 (0.456-1.39); p:0.416; ph: 0.735

1.023 (0.74-1.41); p:0.889; ph:0.746

Smoking status

 Never

24/36

94/176

104/204

198/380

1.00

0.801 (0.45-1.42); p:0.448; ph:0.753

0.765 (0.433-1.35); p:0.354; ph:0.248

1.279 (0.74-2.21); p:0.374; ph:0.216

1.092 (0.78-1.51); p:0.598; ph:0.205

 Ever

8/13

35/70

51/81

86/151

1.00

0.813 (0.31-2.14); p:0.674; ph: 0.753

1.023 (0.397-2.64); p:0.962; ph: 0.248

0.925 (0.37-2.32); p:0.869; ph:0.216

0.823 (0.49-1.37); p:0.452; ph:0.205

Alcohol consumption

 Never

25/42

103/189

116/208

219/397

1.00

0.916 (0.53-1.58); p:0.753; ph:0.959

0.937 (0.54-1.62); p:0.815; ph:0.204

0.927 (0.55-1.56); p:0.775; ph:0.159

0.994 (0.73-1.36); p:0.968; ph:0.147

 Ever

7/7

26/57

39/77

65/134

1.00

0.456 (0.15-1.43); p:0.172; ph: 0.959

0.506 (0.166-1.55); p:0.226; ph: 0.204

0.485 (0.16-1.44); p:0.18; ph:0.159

1.018 (0.57-1.80); p:0.951; ph:0.147

a The genotyping was successful in 316 (95.75%) GCA cases and 603 (95.39%) controls for VDR rs1989969 C>T;

b Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and alcohol consumption (besides stratified factors accordingly) in a logistic regression model;

c ph for heterogeneity; bold values are statistically significant (p <0.05).

Table 7: Stratified analyses between VDR rs11568820 polymorphism and GCA risk by sex, age, smoking status and alcohol consumption

Variable

VDR rs11568820 (case/control)a

Adjusted ORb (95% CI); p; phc

AA

AG

GG

AG+GG

AA

AG

GG

AG+GG

GG vs. (AG+AA)

Sex

 Male

49/85

100/184

74/126

174/310

1.00

0.943 (0.65-1.45); p: 0.787; ph:0.399

1.019 (0.65-1.60); p:0.936; ph:0.352

0.974(0.65-1.45); p:0.895; ph:0.927

0.943 (0.66-1.34); p:0.743; ph:0.895

 Female

20/29

62/99

25/67

87/166

1.00

0.908 (0.47-1.74); p:0.772; ph: 0.399

0.541 (0.26-1.13); p:0.098; ph:0.352

0.760(0.41-1.42); p:0.389; ph:0.927

1.72 (1.00-2.94); p:0.057e; ph:0.895

Age

 <60

14/34

48/69

27/60

75/129

1.00

1.689 (0.82-3.48); p:0.153; ph:0.799

1.093 (0.51-2.36); p:0.821; ph:0.151

1.412 (0.71-2.79); p:0.322; ph:0.824

1.338 (0.77-2.33); p:0.302; ph:0.844

 ≥60

55/80

114/214

72/133

186/347

1.00

0.775 (0.51-1.17); p:0.224; ph: 0.799

0.787 (0.50-1.23); p:0.295; ph:0.151

0.780 (0.53-1.15); p:0.207; ph:0.824

1.062 (0.75-1.49); p:0.732; ph:0.844

Smoking status

 Never

50/83

120/208

65/135

185/343

1.00

0.958 (0.63-1.45); p:0.839; ph:0.214

0.799 (0.51-1.26); p:0.338; ph:0.097

0.895 (0.60-1.33); p:0.582; ph:0.200

1.213 (0.85-1.72); p:0.280; ph:0.191

 Ever

19/31

42/75

34/58

76/133

1.00

0.914 (0.46-1.81); p:0.796; ph:0.214

0.956 (0.47-1.95); p:0.902; ph:0.097

0.932 (0.49-1.76); p:0.829; ph:0.200

0.982 (0.58-1.66); p:0.945; ph:0.191

Alcohol consumption

 Never

58/84

126/220

73/145

199/365

1.00

0.829 (0.56-1.24); p:0.359; ph:0.176

0.729 (0.47-1.13); p:0.156; ph:0.060

0.790 (0.54-1.15); p:0.218; ph:0.150

1.202 (0.86-1.68); p:0.282; ph:0.145

 Ever

11/30

36/63

26/48

62/111

1.00

1.558 (0.69-3.48); p:0.277; ph:0.176

1.477 (0.64-3.42); p:0.361; ph:0.060

1.523 (0.71-3.25); p:0.274; ph:0.150

0.933 (0.52-1.69); p:0.818; ph:0.145

a The genotyping was successful in 330 (100%) GCA cases and 603 (97.04%) controls for VDR rs11568820 A>G;

b Adjusted for age, sex, smoking status and alcohol consumption (besides stratified factors accordingly) in a logistic regression model;

c ph for heterogeneity; bold values are statistically significant (p <0.05).

Linkage disequilibrium analyses

Linkage disequilibrium analyses in both controls and cases were conducted as shown in Table 8. D’ and r2 were analyzed and showed that there were weak correlations between the four loci.

Table 8: Linkage disequilibrium analyses of VDR rs2228570, rs1989969, rs11568820 and rs2107301 in control and case groups

Control

Case

rs2228570

rs1989969

rs11568820

rs2228570

rs1989969

rs11568820

D

 rs2107301

0.289

0.224

0.136

0.202

0.105

0.015

 rs2228570

-

0.213

0.069

-

0.206

0.138

 rs1989969

-

-

0.249

-

-

0.366

r2

 rs2107301

0.029

0.010

0.006

0.015

0.003

0.000

 rs2228570

-

0.026

0.004

-

0.029

0.019

 rs1989969

-

-

0.039

-

-

0.092

Haplotype analysis of VDR polymorphisms and susceptibility of GCA

As shown in Table 9, haplotype analysis was also conducted and haplotypes were from the genotypes of VDR polymorphisms. The haplotype analysis indicated that the VDR Trs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 was the most common haplotype in both groups (17.27% in case group, 14.88% in control group). Compared with the haplotype Trs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820, the haplotypes VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 were more common in the controls (0.143) than in the case group (0.113) with significant difference (p=0.038). Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 haplotype was associated with a significantly reduced risk of GCA (OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.48-0.98, p=0.038). We also further conducted other haplotypes and risk of GCA, but no association was observed between patients and controls.

Table 9: VDR haplotype frequencies (%) in cases and controls and risk of GCA

Haplotypes

Cases (n = 660)

Controls (n = 1216)

Crude OR (95% CI)

p

n

%

n

%

VDR Trs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820

114

17.27

181

14.88

1.00

VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820

75

11.36

174

14.31

0.68 (0.48-0.98)

0.038

VDR Trs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Ars11568820

54

8.18

123

10.12

0.70 (0.47-1.04)

0.075

VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Trs1989969Ars11568820

74

11.21

114

9.38

1.03 (0.71-1.50)

0.875

VDR Crs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820

59

8.94

115

9.46

0.82 (0.55-1.21)

0.305

VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Ars11568820

44

6.67

86

7.07

0.81 (0.53-1.25)

0.346

VDR Crs2107301Crs2228570Crs1989969Ars11568820

31

4.70

65

5.35

0.76 (0.47-1.23)

0.264

VDR Trs2107301Crs2228570Trs1989969Grs11568820

29

4.39

63

5.18

0.73 (0.44-1.20)

0.218

VDR Trs2107301Crs2228570Trs1989969Ars11568820

36

5.45

62

5.10

0.92 (0.58-1.48)

0.736

VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Trs1989969Grs11568820

34

5.15

58

4.77

0.93 (0.57-1.51)

0.771

VDR Crs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820

27

4.09

50

4.11

0.86 (0.51-1.45)

0.565

VDR Crs2107301Crs2228570Trs1989969Grs11568820

15

2.27

31

2.55

0.77 (0.40-1.49)

0.433

VDR Crs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Ars11568820

20

3.03

29

2.38

1.10 (0.59-2.03)

0.773

VDR Crs2107301Trs2228570Trs1989969Ars11568820

17

2.58

25

2.06

1.08 (0.56-2.09)

0.820

VDR Crs2107301Crs2228570Trs1989969Ars11568820

24

3.64

23

1.89

1.66 (0.89-3.07)

0.109

VDR Crs2107301Trs2228570Trs1989969Grs11568820

7

1.06

17

1.40

0.65 (0.26-1.63)

0.361

With the order of VDR rs2107301 T>C, rs2228570 C>T, rs1989969 C>T and rs11568820 G>A in gene position.

DISCUSSION

In the current study, by multivariable logistic analysis, we demonstrated that there was no significant association between the polymorphisms of VDR rs11568820 G>A, rs1989969 C>T, rs2107301 T>C andrs2228570 C>T and the risk of GCA in Chinese population. Yet, notably, we detected an increased risk of GCA among alcohol drinking or younger patients (<60 of age) who carried VDR rs1989969 C>T genotype. Interestingly, the VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 haplotype was associated with a significantly reduced risk of GCA.

Recently, accumulating evidence showed 1,25(OH)2D3, the hormonally active form of vitamin D, participates in apoptosis, cell proliferation and inflammation in cancer [5]. 1,25(OH)2D3 could restrain cancer cell growth by inducing their differentiation, by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle or by induction of apoptotic cell death. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D3 also has an impact on angiogenesis, thereby limiting the invasiveness of cancer cells [6]. As the key component of the vitamin D metabolism process, VDR similarly participates in the regulation of cancer development. SNPs of VDR gene have been shown correlated with cancers of the breast, prostate, colon [10], ovarian [14, 15], melanoma [16] and other malignancies [10, 17, 18]. In more than 200 specific VDR–SNPs, the most frequently associated with carcinogenesis are FokI (rs2228570), BsmI (rs1544410), TaqI (rs731236), ApaI (rs7975232) and Cdx2 (rs11568820) [10, 19, 20], yet the results are inconsistent. In contrast to the findings that VDR gene polymorphisms seem not related to the esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) risk development [21], we previously showed a significantly increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma associated with VDR rs2107301 T>C polymorphism among patients who were drinking [13]. Therefore, in this study, we sought to verify our hypothesis that SNPs in VDR gene is related to GCA since it occurs in the anatomical vicinity of esophagus. Similarly, none of the four polymorphic sites was associated with the change of susceptibility to GCA, but a remarkable increased risk of GCA was found among alcohol drinking but younger patients (<60 years of age) who carried VDR rs1989969 C>T genotype.

Previous studies have shown the correlation of several SNPs with GCA (summarized in [22]). PLCE1 (rs2274223) A>G SNP causes a missense variation in the protein phospholipase-Cε-1, which generates two critical messengers [inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG)], thereby affecting cell growth, differentiation and gene expression [23]. Interestingly, vitamin D [(1,25(OH)2D3] – VDR signaling pathway also stimulates the IP3 and DAG generation via phospholipase C [24], which may probably underlie its correlation with GCA. Other genetic variants significantly associated with the risk of GCA included PRKAA1 (rs13361707), IL1B (rs16944), TNF (rs1800629) and MDM2 (rs2279744) [22], involving the signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis aspects. However, the connections between these SNPs with our findings remain obscure.

As compared with the homozygote for the common allele, men who were homozygote for the rare allele for VDR rs2107301 have higher risk of prostate cancer [25]. In contrast, VDR rs2107301 was not associated with GCA in either single locus analyses or the stratified analyses in the current study. Instead, we demonstrated that VDR rs1989969 C>T polymorphism increased the risk of GCA among younger patients or alcohol drinkers, exemplifying the significance of the environment and genetic risk factors interact and both contribute to the carcinogenesis.

Our study showed the VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 haplotype was associated with a significantly reduced risk of GCA, which indicated that polymorphism in single locus might not significantly modify the risk of cancer. The chain effect lying in different loci leads to a more profound impact which could regulate the risk of cancer.

Between ethnic groups, the frequencies of genetic polymorphisms do vary. In our study, the allele frequency of VDR rs1989969 was 0.323 in 608 control subjects, which is consistent with that in the Chinese Han (0.330) in the SNP Database, but lower than that of African (0.510) and Caucasian (0.410) population (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SNP).

Considering VDR rs1989969 C>T mutant alleles in the control group, ORs, GCA samples and control samples, the power of our analysis (α= 0.05) was 0.999 in 330 GCA cases and 608 controls with an OR of 2.05 in age<60 subgroup, and 0.983 with an or of 1.78 in the drinking subgroup (ps, version 3.0, 2009, available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/twiki/bin/view/Main/PowerSampleSize).

We acknowledge that there are several limitations in the current study: First, restrained by the moderate sample size and lack of a validation cohort, the statistical power of our study was limited. Larger studies in multiple ethnical populations and various geographic locations are demanded to confirm the associations reported in our study. Second, the genetic effects of VDR polymorphisms on GCA susceptibility are probably caused by linkage disequilibrium (LD) with several functional variations within the VDR gene or with other closely linked genes. The SNPs we chose to study may not serve as a comprehensive representative of all the genetic variability of VDR, which entails further studies clarifying the genetic mechanism of GCA carcinogenesis by fine-mapping the susceptible region of the variants. Third, the study subjects recruited were from hospitals in the east part of China with same ethnicity, which may compromise its representativeness of the general population for potential inherited bias. Last but no least, the biological effects of VDR rs1989969 C>T polymorphism on VDR function and the downstream signaling cascade remain unclear. Located on the second intron of VDR, rs1989969 may probably cause an alternative RNA splicing on VDR mRNA, thereby regulating the VDR protein function. Yet this speculation demands further investigations.

In conclusion, the GCA is associated with a variety of factors including gene, environment and life-style. Our findings that the increased risk of GCA was found among alcohol drinking and younger patients (<60 years of age) who carried VDR rs1989969 C>T genotype and the reduced risk of GCA for man with VDR Trs2107301Trs2228570Crs1989969Grs11568820 haplotype, should be interpreted with much caution. Further larger studies in multiple ethnical populations and various geographic locations are needed to verify our preliminary results.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Ethical approval of the study protocol

This hospital-based case-control study was approved by the Review Board of Jiangsu University (Zhenjiang, China). We have complied with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki regarding ethical conduct of research involving human subjects and/or animals. All subjects provided written informed consent to be included. Each participant agreed to donate 2ml of peripheral venous blood for the research project, which was performed by skilled nurses under strict aseptic condition to minimize potential risks on subjects’ well being.

Study subjects

The study included a total of 938 subjects. 330 patients with GCA were consecutively recruited from the Affiliated People’s Hospital of Jiangsu University and Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University (Zhenjiang, China) between October 2010 and December 2012. The exclusion criteria were patients who previously had cancer, any metastasized cancer, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The 608 controls were patients without cancer frequency-matched to the cases with regard to age (±5 years) and sex recruited from the two hospitals mentioned above during the same time period. Most of the controls were admitted to the hospitals for the treatment of trauma. Gender and age distribution had no significant difference between the case group and the control group, respectively.

Experienced and well-trained personnel interviewed each study subject with a pretested questionnaire. Demographic data and related risk factors were collected. 2mL samples of venous blood were collected from each subject with consent. Individuals who smoked one cigarette per day for ≥1 year were defined as “smokers”. Subjects who consumed ≥3 alcoholic drinks a week for >6 months were considered to be “alcohol drinkers”.

Isolation of DNA and genotyping by ligation detection reaction

Blood samples from patients and controls were collected using vacuum blood tube with Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA). Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood by using QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, Berlin, Germany). Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by the ligation detection reaction (LDR) method with technical support from the Biowing Applied Biotechnology (Shanghai, China). 10% of the total samples were randomly selected to repeated analyses in order to maximize the probably error of the genotyping results and improve quality control.

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS17.0 Statistical Package (2007, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for genotypes was tested by goodness-of-fit χ2 in control group. The distribution of VDR rs2107301 T>C, rs2228570 C>T, rs1989969 C>T and rs11568820 G>A genotypes was performed using the chi-square (χ2) test to examine statistical differences between patients and controls. The associations between these four SNPs and risk of GCA were estimated by computing the Odds ratios and confidence intervals (95%) using logistic regression analyses. Crude ORs and adjusted ORs when adjusting for age, sex, smoking and drinking status were also computed by using logistic regression analyses. Bilateral probability tests were taken, p value <0.05 on behalf of the difference was statistically significant.

Abbreviations

VDR: vitamin D receptor; GCA: gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma; LD: linkage disequilibrium; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidential interval; SNPs: single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Dr. Yiqun Chen (Biowing Applied Biotechnology, Shanghai, China) for technical support.

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

GRANT SUPPORT

This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81000028, 81370001, 81570031, 81300037, 81101889, 81472332, 81341006); the Key Research and Development Program of Jiangsu Province (BE2016714); the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BK2010333, BK2011481); the “333” Elitist Training Program, Jiangsu, China (BRA2013135); the “Six Talent Peaks” Training Program, Jiangsu, China (2014-WSN-078, 2015-WSN-117); the “Distinguished Medical Specialist” Program, Jiangsu, China; the “Innovative and Entrepreneurial Elite Team” Program (2016), Jiangsu, China; the research funding of Zhongshan Hospital (2016ZSLC15) and the Zhenjiang Social Development Program (SH2013039).

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