IL-6 signaling contributes to cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer via the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic and DNA repair associated molecules
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Shanzhou Duan1,2, Ying Tsai1, Peter Keng1, Yongbing Chen2, Soo Ok Lee1, Yuhchyau Chen1
1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA
2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215004, P.R. China
Yuhchyau Chen, e-mail: [email protected]
Soo Ok Lee, e-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, IL-6, cisplatin resistance, apoptosis, DNA repair
Received: May 26, 2015 Accepted: July 17, 2015 Published: July 30, 2015
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is currently the most effective treatment regimen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but eventually tumor resistance develops which limits its success. The potential implication of IL-6 signaling in the cisplatin resistance of NSCLC was explored by testing whether NSCLC cells with different levels of intracellular IL-6 show different responses to the cytotoxic treatment of cisplatin. When the cisplatin cytotoxicity of the IL-6 knocked down human NSCLC cells (A549IL-6si and H157IL-6si) were compared with their corresponding scramble control cells (A549sc and H157sc), higher cisplatin cytotoxicity was found in IL-6 si cells than sc cells. Subcutaneous xenograft mouse models were developed using a pair of A549sc and A549IL-6si cells. When the tumor grew to about 400 mm2, mice were treated with cisplatin and tumor regression was monitored. Higher tumor regression was detected in the A549IL-6si xenografts compared to A549sc xenografts following cisplatin treatment. Immunostaining study results from tumor tissues also supported this finding. Expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and DNA repair associated molecules ATM, CHK1, TP73, p53, and ERCC1 were significantly up regulated in cisplatin-treated A549sc and H157sc cells, but no increase was detected in A549IL-6si and H157IL-6si cells. Further inhibitor studies revealed that up regulation of these molecules by IL-6 may be through activation of IL-6 downstream signaling pathways like Akt, MAPK, Stat3, and Erk. These results provide potential for combining cisplatin and inhibitors of IL-6 signaling or its downstream signaling pathway as a future therapeutic approach in preventing development of cisplatin resistant NSCLC tumors.
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