Research Papers:

The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both VEGF and PROK1(No correlation coefficient between VEGF and PROK1)

Takanori Goi _, Toshiyuki Nakazawa, Yasuo Hirono and Akio Yamaguchi

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Oncotarget. 2015; 6:28790-28799. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4744

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Takanori Goi1, Toshiyuki Nakazawa1, Yasuo Hirono1, Akio Yamaguchi1

1First Department of Surgery, University of Fukui, 9101193, Japan

Correspondence to:

Takanori Goi, e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: colorectal cancer, prokineticin1 (PROK1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Received: May 25, 2015     Accepted: July 17, 2015     Published: July 30, 2015


The angiogenic proteins vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prokineticin1 (PROK1) proteins are considered important in colorectal cancer, the relationship between their simultaneous expression and prognosis was investigated in the present study.

VEGF and PROK1 expression in 620 primary human colorectal cancer lesions was confirmed via immunohistochemical staining with anti-VEGF and anti-PROK1 antibodies, and the correlation between the expression of these 2 proteins and recurrence/prognosis were investigated.

VEGF protein was expressed in 329 (53.1%) and PROK1 protein was expressed in 223 (36.0%). PROK1 and VEGF were simultaneously expressed in 116 (18.7%) of the 620 cases. The correlation coefficient between VEGF expression and PROK1 expression was r = 0.11, and therefore correlation was not observed. Clinical pathology revealed that substantially lymphnode matastasis, hematogenous metastasis, or TMN advanced-stageIV was significantly more prevalent in cases that expressed both VEGF and PROK1 than in the cases negative for both proteins or those positive for only 1 of the proteins.

Also the cases positive for both proteins exhibited the worst recurrence and prognosis. In the Cox proportional hazards model, VEGF and PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor.

The prognosis was poorer in colorectal cancers that expressed both PROK1 and VEGF relative to the cases that expressed only 1 protein, and the expression of both proteins was found to be an independent prognostic factor.

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