Targeting cancer by binding iron: Dissecting cellular signaling pathways
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Goldie Y.L. Lui1, Zaklina Kovacevic1, Vera Richardson1, Angelica M. Merlot1, Danuta S. Kalinowski1, Des R. Richardson1
1Department of Pathology and Bosch Institute, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Des R. Richardson, e-mail: email@example.com
Zaklina Kovacevic, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: cancer, iron, chelators, thiosemicarbazones, signaling
Received: April 21, 2015 Accepted: June 12, 2015 Published: June 23, 2015
Newer and more potent therapies are urgently needed to effectively treat advanced cancers that have developed resistance and metastasized. One such strategy is to target cancer cell iron metabolism, which is altered compared to normal cells and may facilitate their rapid proliferation. This is supported by studies reporting the anti-neoplastic activities of the clinically available iron chelators, desferrioxamine and deferasirox. More recently, ligands of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone (DpT) class have demonstrated potent and selective anti-proliferative activity across multiple cancer-types in vivo, fueling studies aimed at dissecting their molecular mechanisms of action. In the past five years alone, significant advances have been made in understanding how chelators not only modulate cellular iron metabolism, but also multiple signaling pathways implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Herein, we discuss recent research on the targeting of iron in cancer cells, with a focus on the novel and potent DpT ligands. Several key studies have revealed that iron chelation can target the AKT, ERK, JNK, p38, STAT3, TGF-β, Wnt and autophagic pathways to subsequently inhibit cellular proliferation, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. These developments emphasize that these novel therapies could be utilized clinically to effectively target cancer.
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