The DNA2 nuclease/helicase is an estrogen-dependent gene mutated in breast and ovarian cancers
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Carmit Strauss1, Maya Kornowski1, Avraham Benvenisty1, Amit Shahar2, Hadas Masury2, Ittai Ben-Porath2, Tommer Ravid3, Ayelet Arbel-Eden4, Michal Goldberg1
1Department of Genetics, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel
2Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, IMRIC, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, 91120, Israel
3Department of Biochemistry, Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, 91904, Israel
4Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Hadassah Academic College, Jerusalem, 91010, Israel
Michal Goldberg, e-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: Estrogen-dependent cancers, DNA helicases, DNA nucleases, DNA2, estrogen, DNA damage response
Received: June 30, 2014 Accepted: August 28, 2014 Published: November 01, 2014
Genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer, is commonly caused by failures in the DNA damage response. Here we conducted a bioinformatical screen to reveal DNA damage response genes that are upregulated by estrogen and highly mutated in breast and ovarian cancers. This screen identified 53 estrogen-dependent cancer genes, some of which are novel. Notably, the screen retrieved 9 DNA helicases as well as 5 nucleases. DNA2, which functions as both a helicase and a nuclease and plays a role in DNA repair and replication, was retrieved in the screen. Mutations in DNA2, found in estrogen-dependent cancers, are clustered in the helicase and nuclease domains, suggesting activity impairment. Indeed, we show that mutations found in ovarian cancers impair DNA2 activity. Depletion of DNA2 in cells reduces their tumorogenicity in mice. In human, high expression of DNA2 correlates with poor survival of estrogen receptor-positive patients but not of estrogen receptor-negative patients. We also demonstrate that depletion of DNA2 in cells reduces proliferation, while addition of estrogen restores proliferation. These findings suggest that cells responding to estrogen will proliferate despite being impaired in DNA2 activity, potentially promoting genomic instability and triggering cancer development.
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