Total fluid consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis with updated data
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Qinyu Liu1,*, Banghua Liao1,*, Ye Tian2,*, Yuntian Chen1, Deyi Luo1, Yifei Lin1, Hong Li1 and Kun-Jie Wang1
1Urology Department, Institute of Urology (Laboratory of Reconstructive Urology), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
2Urology Department, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Kun-Jie Wang, email: [email protected]
Keywords: bladder cancer, risk factor, fluid consumption, epidemiology, meta-analysis
Received: July 27, 2016 Accepted: May 04, 2017 Published: May 23, 2017
With meta-analysis we tented to reveal the potential relationship between daily fluid consumption and bladder cancer risk, and to find out a recommendation on daily fluid intake. Databases of the Web of Science, PubMed and EMBASE were searched then 21 case-control and 5 cohort studies were included. Stratified analyses on gender, region, time of subjects recruiting and fluid quantity were performed as well as dose-response meta-analysis. Comparing the highest exposure category with the lowest in each study, no association appeared when all data pooled together (p=0.50), but a significant OR of 1.46 (1.02-2.08, p=0.04) was found in male subgroup. For different regions, the summarized OR was 1.44 (1.10-1.89) in American case-control studies, 1.87 (1.20-2.90) in European male subgroup and 0.24 (0.10-0.60) in Asia. There was a significant relationship that each increment 1000ml daily consumption would increase the risk by 28.6% in European male (p=0.007). Similarly every additional 1000ml consumption may increase the OR by 14.9% in American people but the association wasn’t that strong (p=0.057). Stratified analyses showed fluid consumption over 3000ml/day in American residents and 2000ml/day in European male resulted in OR>1 with statistical significance. In conclusion, a relationship between higher fluid intake and higher bladder cancer risk was observed in European male and American residents and a limitation to <2000ml and <3000ml per day are recommended respectively.
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