Upregulation of long non-coding RNA PlncRNA-1 promotes proliferation and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer
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Yang Jin1,3, Zilian Cui2,3, Xudong Li4, Xunbo Jin3, Jian Peng1
1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China
2Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan, Shandong, China
3Minimally Invasive Urology Center, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China
4Department of Urology, Binzhou People's Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong, China
Zilian Cui, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: PlncRNA-1, long noncoding RNA, LNCAP, C4-2, TGF-β1
Received: October 19, 2016 Accepted: January 29, 2017 Published: February 13, 2017
Objective: To confirm that PlncRNA-1 regulates the cell cycle in prostate cancer cells and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer through the TGF-β1 pathway.
Results: PlncRNA-1 and TGF-β1 expression levels were significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues than in normal prostate tissues (P < 0.05) and were significantly positively correlated. TGF-β1, N-cadherin and Cyclin-D1 were downregulated and E-Cadherin was upregulated in LNCAP cells after silencing of PlncRNA-1, as determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. TGF-β1, N-cadherin and Cyclin-D1 were upregulated and E-cadherin was downregulated in C4-2 cells, as determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. Overexpression of PlncRNA-1 in C4-2 cells was observed when TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761 was added. Western blot analysis showed that compared with their expression when TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761 was not added, N-Cadherin and CyclinD1 expression decreased and E-Cadherin expression increased. Transwell results showed that the invasive ability of C4-2 cells was enhanced after overexpression of PlncRNA-1, and the invasion ability was decreased after addition of TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761. The cell cycle was blocked by overexpression of PlncRNA-1 in C4-2 and by the addition of TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761, as determined by flow cytometry. In vitro experiments showed that PlncRNA-1 can regulate the growth of prostate cancer cells and EMT through the TGF-β1 pathway. In vivo experiments also confirmed the above results. Tumor growth was significantly blocked by overexpressing PlncRNA-1 in C4-2 cells and by the TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761 in animal experiments.
Materials and Methods: The expression levels of PlncRNA-1 and TGF-β1 were analyzed in 19 prostate cancer tissue samples and in adjacent normal tissue samples, 4 Pca cell lines, including LNCaP, C4-2,DU145, and PC3, and 1 normal prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1. LNCAP cells were divided into the LNCAP control group and the LNCAP-PlncRNA-1-siRNA group. Cells from the prostate cancer cell line C4-2 were divided into the C4-2 control group and the C4-2-PlncRNA-1 experimental group. Changes in TGF-β1, E-cadherin and N-cadherin were detected by qPCR and Western Blot assay after silencing and overexpression of PlncRNA-1. The cell cycle, cell invasion, and levels of Cyclin-D1, E-Cadherin, and N-Cadherin were observed after adding TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761 in the C4-2-PlncRNA-1 group. The effects of TGF-β1 inhibitor LY2109761 on the tumorigenicity of C4-2 cells after overexpression of PlncRNA-1 was investigated in vivo.
Conclusions: PlncRNA-1 is an oncogene that regulates the cell cycle, cyclin-D1 and EMT in prostate cancer cells through the TGF-β1 pathway.
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