Treatment of oral hyperpigmentation and gummy smile using lasers and role of plasma as a novel treatment technique in dentistry: An introductory review
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Nayansi Jha1, Jae Jun Ryu1, Rizwan Wahab2, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy2, Eun Ha Choi3 and Nagendra Kumar Kaushik3
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Implantology, Graduate School of Clinical Dentistry, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea
2 Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Plasma Bioscience Research Centre, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, South Korea
Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, email:
Eun Ha Choi, email:
Jae Jun Ryu, email:
Keywords: excessive gingival display, gingival hyperpigmentation, laser surgery, melanosomes, non-thermal plasma
Received: December 28, 2016 Accepted: January 24, 2017 Published: January 29, 2017
Gingival hyperpigmentation and the condition known as gummy smile are very common dental cosmetic problems. Gingival hyperpigmentation arises due to the excess presence of melanin in certain regions of the gums. In the case of gummy smile, more than the required amount of gingival tissue is exposed upon smiling. An aesthetically pleasing smile should expose only a negligible amount of gingival tissue. Gummy smile and gingival hyperpigmentation can have detrimental effects on the aesthetic quality of a smile, and thereby a wide variety of treatment options must be taken into consideration depending patient outcome objectives. The use of a laser as a treatment modality is considered to be a promising option for such cases. We aim to explain the effects of using a laser on the gingiva and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this type of treatment and the resulting alteration of the genetic composition of the gingival tissue. This article reviews the histological aspects and biological effects of a laser treatment for oral hyperpigmentation and gummy smile and analyzes the use of the laser as a modality to improve the smiles of people with hyperpigmentation and excessive gingival display. We also attempt to provide insight into the use of plasma as a novel technology for medical and dental research and its future implications with regard to, dental soft tissue procedures.
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