Clinical Research Papers:

Validation of different staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma in a cohort of 249 patients undergoing radiotherapy

Zhi-Rui Zhou, Min Liu, Hui-Rong Lu, Ye-Fei Li, Shi-Xiong Liang _ and Chun-Yan Zhang

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:46523-46531. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.14881

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Zhi-Rui Zhou1,2,3,*, Min Liu3,*, Hui-Rong Lu3, Ye-Fei Li3, Shi-Xiong Liang3,4 and Chun-Yan Zhang5

1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, P.R. China

2 Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China

3 Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R. China

4 Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China

5 Department of Experimental Research, Cancer Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, P.R. China

* These authors have contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Shi-Xiong Liang, email:

Chun-Yan Zhang, email:

Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, radiotherapy, cancer staging

Received: September 20, 2016 Accepted: January 16, 2017 Published: January 28, 2017


There is no consensus on predicting prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiotherapy. This study aims to evaluate the validity of different staging systems. Overall, 249 hepatocellular carcinoma patients were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were classified by different staging systems. The cumulative survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. Harrell’s concordance index (c-index) was calculated. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 58%, 31% and 20%, respectively. Significant differences in overall survival were observed between stages I and II of the Okuda staging system (p=0.004), between scores of 3 and 4 of Cancer of the Liver Italian Program prognostic score (p=0.009), between Chinese University Prognostic Index low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (p=0.01), between 1 and 2 points of the Japan Integrated Staging score (p=0.037), between stages III and IV of American Joint Committee on Cancer 1997 TNM staging system (p=0.011), between stages II and III of American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002 TNM staging system (p=0.026) and between stages I and II of Guangzhou 2001 staging system (p=0.000). In conclusion, the Okuda staging system, Chinese University Prognostic Index, and Chinese Guangzhou 2001 staging system were more discriminative than the other staging systems in the prognostic stratification for hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiotherapy.

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