Skeletal muscle aging: influence of oxidative stress and physical exercise
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Mariana Janini Gomes1, Paula Felippe Martinez2, Luana Urbano Pagan1, Ricardo Luiz Damatto1, Marcelo Diacardia Mariano Cezar1, Aline Regina Ruiz Lima1, Katashi Okoshi1 and Marina Politi Okoshi1
1 Botucatu Medical School, Internal Medicine Departament, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
2 School of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil
Marina Politi Okoshi, email:
Keywords: elderly, physical capacity, sarcopenia, training, treatment
Received: November 04, 2016 Accepted: January 09, 2017 Published: January 15, 2017
Skeletal muscle abnormalities are responsible for significant disability in the elderly. Sarcopenia is the main alteration occurring during senescence and a key public health issue as it predicts frailty, poor quality of life, and mortality. Several factors such as reduced physical activity, hormonal changes, insulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, appetite loss, and nutritional deficiencies are involved in the physiopathology of muscle changes. Sarcopenia is characterized by structural, biochemical, molecular and functional muscle changes. An imbalance between anabolic and catabolic intracellular signaling pathways and an increase in oxidative stress both play important roles in muscle abnormalities. Currently, despite the discovery of new targets and development of new drugs, nonpharmacological therapies such as physical exercise and nutritional support are considered the basis for prevention and treatment of age-associated muscle abnormalities. There has been an increase in information on signaling pathways beneficially modulated by exercise; nonetheless, studies are needed to establish the best type, intensity, and frequency of exercise to prevent or treat age-induced skeletal muscle alterations.
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