Bone marrow micro-environment is a crucial player for myelomagenesis and disease progression
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Patrizia Mondello1,2,3, Salvatore Cuzzocrea2, Michele Navarra2 and Michael Mian4,5
1 Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
2 Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
3 Lymphoma Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA
4 Department of Hematology and Center of Bone Marrow Transplantation, Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano/Bozen, Italy
5 Department of Internal Medicine V, Hematology & Oncology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria
Patrizia Mondello, email:
Keywords: multiple myeloma, micro-environment, therapeutic opportunities, osteoclast activation, angiogenesis
Received: July 18, 2016 Accepted: January 05, 2017 Published: January 12, 2017
Despite the advent of many therapeutic agents, such as bortezomib and lenalidomide that have significantly improved the overall survival, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease. Failure to cure is multifactorial and can be attributed to the underlying genetic heterogeneity of the cancer and to the surrounding micro-environment. Understanding the mutual interaction between myeloma cells and micro-environment may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies able to eradicate this disease. In this review we discuss the principal molecules involved in the micro-environment network in multiple myeloma and the currently available therapies targeting them.
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