Research Papers: Pathology:

Evidence of cellular stress and caspase-3 resulting from a combined two-frequency signal in the cerebrum and cerebellum of Sprague-Dawley rats

Alberto López-Furelos, José Manuel Leiro-Vidal, Aarón Ángel Salas-Sánchez, Francisco José Ares-Pena and María Elena López-Martín _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:64674-64689. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11753

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Alberto López-Furelos1, José Manuel Leiro-Vidal2, Aarón Ángel Salas-Sánchez3, Francisco José Ares-Pena3 and María Elena López-Martín1

1 Department of Morphological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

2 Institute of Alimentary Analysis, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

3 Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain

Correspondence to:

María Elena López-Martín, email:

Keywords: heat shock proteins, specific absorption rate, caspase-3, multiple electromagnetic fields, cerebral cortex, Pathology Section

Received: October 30, 2015 Accepted: July 16, 2016 Published: August 31, 2016


Multiple simultaneous exposures to electromagnetic signals induced adjustments in mammal nervous systems. In this study, we investigated the non-thermal SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) in the cerebral or cerebellar hemispheres of rats exposed in vivo to combined electromagnetic field (EMF) signals at 900 and 2450 MHz.

Forty rats divided into four groups of 10 were individually exposed or not exposed to radiation in a GTEM chamber for one or two hours. After radiation, we used the Chemiluminescent Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ChELISA) technique to measure cellular stress levels, indicated by the presence of heat shock proteins (HSP) 90 and 70, as well as caspase-3-dependent pre-apoptotic activity in left and right cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres of Sprague Dawley rats.

Twenty-four hours after exposure to combined or single radiation, significant differences were evident in HSP 90 and 70 but not in caspase 3 levels between the hemispheres of the cerebral cortex at high SAR levels. In the cerebellar hemispheres, groups exposed to a single radiofrequency (RF) and high SAR showed significant differences in HSP 90, 70 and caspase-3 levels compared to control animals. The absorbed energy and/or biological effects of combined signals were not additive, suggesting that multiple signals act on nervous tissue by a different mechanism.

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