Oncotarget

Reviews:

Kinase inhibitors as potential agents in the treatment of multiple myeloma

Hanley N. Abramson _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:81926-81968. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10745

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Abstract

Hanley N. Abramson1

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA

Correspondence to:

Hanley N. Abramson, email:

Keywords: multiple myeloma, kinase inhibitors

Received: March 04, 2016 Accepted: June 30, 2016 Published: July 20, 2016

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of therapeutic options available for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) - from immunomodulating agents to proteasome inhibitors to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and, most recently, monoclonal antibodies. Used in conjunction with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, these modalities have nearly doubled the disease’s five-year survival rate over the last three decades to about 50%. In spite of these advances, MM still is considered incurable as resistance and relapse are common. While small molecule protein kinase inhibitors have made inroads in the therapy of a number of cancers, to date their application to MM has been less than successful. Focusing on MM, this review examines the roles played by a number of kinases in driving the malignant state and the rationale for target development in the design of a number of kinase inhibitors that have demonstrated anti-myeloma activity in both in vitro and in vivo xenograph models, as well as those that have entered clinical trials. Among the targets and their inhibitors examined are receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, cell cycle control kinases, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway kinases, protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, casein kinase, integrin-linked kinase, sphingosine kinase, and kinases involved in the unfolded protein response.


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