Oncotarget: Quantitative difference of oral pathogen with gastric cancer


Oncotarget published "Quantitative difference of oral pathogen between individuals with gastric cancer and individuals without cancer" which reported that the loss of teeth and lack of oral hygiene have been associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer in several populations evidenced in epidemiological studies.

Periodontal clinical examination was performed, and all individuals were submitted to the collection of salivary and dental biofilms. When comparing the median periodontal indexes in the gastric and cancer-free groups, it was statistically significant in the gastric cancer group compared to the probing depth of the periodontal pocket. Significant relationships between biological agents and GC have been found in bacterial species that cause high rates of periodontal pathology and caries. The results suggest a different quantitative association in the presence of oral pathogens between individuals without cancer and patients with GC.

Dr. Carla de Castro Sant' Anna from The Federal University of Pará said, "Sporadic gastric cancer is the result of several molecular changes induced by environmental factors, including admission of diets with high salt levels (mainly with high sodium concentrations); poor food preservation; increased N-nitrous compounds in the gastric mucosa; antioxidant/vitamin deficiencies (e.g., vitamin C); Helicobacter pylori infection; proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphism; and prolonged consumption of alcohol and tobacco."

The cumulative effect of these aggressions on the gastric epithelium over the years leads to the development of neoplasia, so gastric cancer usually has a high incidence in the sixth decade of life in individuals with chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide, and an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases occurred in 2020. Among the different cancers that affect humans, gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world and the fifth most frequent malignant tumor.

Cancer is one of the major public health problems worldwide, and an estimated 19.3 million new cancer cases occurred in 2020

Bacterial cells are responsible for the two most common diseases in humans: tooth decay and periodontal disease. Human health is also influenced by oral hygiene, where pathologies of the mouth have been linked to various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, endocarditis, and the presence of bacteria in the blood.

The risk of the appearance of precancerous gastric lesions increases in the presence of virulence of periodontal factors, in addition to the diversity of the oral microbial environment. Periodontal pathogens are receiving growing interest in elucidating the etiology of cancer. The pathogenesis of periodontitis is related to important functions of periodontal bacteria, causing destruction of dental support tissue, which can lead to tooth loss. Thus, the association of periodontal pathogens and pancreatic and oral cancer has been observed in epidemiological research.

The de Castro Sant' Anna Research Team concluded in their Oncotarget Research Output, "The large size of our sample and the clinical information generated by the patients in this study, although only a start, may allow analysis of the oral microbiota to assist gastric cancer therapy and help develop individualized approaches to cancer prevention and treatment stomach. The results suggest a possible systemic disease related to or influenced by periodontal disease."

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DOI - https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28034

Full text - https://www.oncotarget.com/article/28034/text/

Correspondence to - Carla de Castro Sant' - [email protected]

Keywords - periodontal disease, microbiome, gastric cancer, oral pathogens

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