Gastrin-induced miR-222 promotes gastric tumor development by suppressing p27kip1
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Katie A. Lloyd1, Andrew R. Moore1,2, Bryony N. Parsons1, Adrian O’Hara1, Malcolm Boyce3, Graham J. Dockray1, Andrea Varro1, D. Mark Pritchard1,2
1Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
2Gastroenterology Directorate, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals NHS Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom
3Trio Medicines Ltd, London, United Kingdom
D. Mark Pritchard, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: neuroendocrine, carcinoid, microRNA, stomach, CCK2 receptor
Received: March 04, 2016 Accepted: May 29, 2016 Published: June 14, 2016
Background and Aims: Elevated circulating concentrations of the hormone gastrin contribute to the development of gastric adenocarcinoma and types-1 and 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate proteins which in turn influence various biological processes. We hypothesised that gastrin induces the expression of specific gastric miRNAs within CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) expressing cells and that these mediate functionally important actions of gastrin.
Results: Gastrin increased miR-222 expression in AGSGR cells, with maximum changes observed at 10 nM G17 for 24 h. Signalling occurred via CCK2R and the PKC and PI3K pathways. miR-222 expression was increased in the serum and gastric corpus mucosa of hypergastrinemic INS-GAS mice and hypergastrinemic patients with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and type 1 gastric NETs; it decreased in patients following treatment with the CCK2R antagonist netazepide (YF476). Gastrin-induced miR-222 overexpression resulted in reduced expression and cytoplasmic mislocalisation of p27kip1, which in turn caused actin remodelling and increased migration in AGSGR cells.
Materials and Methods: miRNA PCR arrays were used to identify changes in miRNA expression following G17 treatment of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with CCK2R (AGSGR). miR-222 was further investigated using primer assays and samples from hypergastrinemic mice and humans. Chemically synthesised mimics and inhibitors were used to assess cellular phenotypical changes associated with miR-222 dysregulation.
Conclusions: These data indicate a novel mechanism contributing to gastrin-associated gastric tumor development. miR-222 may also be a promising biomarker for monitoring gastrin induced premalignant changes in the stomach.
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