GLK/MAP4K3 overexpression associates with recurrence risk for non-small cell lung cancer
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Chung-Ping Hsu1,2, Huai-Chia Chuang3, Ming-Ching Lee1,4, Hsiao-Hui Tsou5, Li-Wen Lee1, Ju-Pi Li3, Tse-Hua Tan3,6
1Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 40705, Taiwan
2Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan
3Immunology Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 35053, Taiwan
4Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan
5Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 35053, Taiwan
6Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA
Tse-Hua Tan, email: email@example.com
Chung-Ping Hsu, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: MAP4K3, GCK-like kinase (GLK), cancer recurrence, NSCLC, lung cancer
Received: February 15, 2016 Accepted: April 23, 2016 Published: May 17, 2016
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of total lung cancers; 40% to 60% of NSCLC patients die of cancer recurrence after cancer resection. Since GLK (also named MAP4K3) induces activation of NF-κB, which contributes to tumor progression, we investigated the role of GLK in NSCLC. GLK protein levels of 190 samples from pulmonary tissue arrays and 58 pulmonary resection samples from stage I to stage III NSCLC patients were studied using immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting. High levels of GLK proteins were detected in pulmonary tissues from NSCLC patients. Elevated GLK protein levels were correlated with increased recurrence risks and poor recurrence-free survival rates in NSCLC patients after adjusting for pathologic stage, smoking status, alcohol status, and EGFR levels. Thus, GLK is a novel prognostic biomarker for NSCLC recurrence.
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