Research Papers:

GLK/MAP4K3 overexpression associates with recurrence risk for non-small cell lung cancer

Chung-Ping Hsu _, Huai-Chia Chuang, Ming-Ching Lee, Hsiao-Hui Tsou, Li-Wen Lee, Ju-Pi Li and Tse-Hua Tan

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:41748-41757. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9410

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Chung-Ping Hsu1,2, Huai-Chia Chuang3, Ming-Ching Lee1,4, Hsiao-Hui Tsou5, Li-Wen Lee1, Ju-Pi Li3, Tse-Hua Tan3,6

1Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, 40705, Taiwan

2Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan

3Immunology Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 35053, Taiwan

4Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan

5Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, 35053, Taiwan

6Department of Pathology & Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 77030, USA

Correspondence to:

Tse-Hua Tan, email: ttan@nhri.org.tw

Chung-Ping Hsu, email: cliff@vghtc.gov.tw

Keywords: MAP4K3, GCK-like kinase (GLK), cancer recurrence, NSCLC, lung cancer

Received: February 15, 2016    Accepted: April 23, 2016    Published: May 17, 2016


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of total lung cancers; 40% to 60% of NSCLC patients die of cancer recurrence after cancer resection. Since GLK (also named MAP4K3) induces activation of NF-κB, which contributes to tumor progression, we investigated the role of GLK in NSCLC. GLK protein levels of 190 samples from pulmonary tissue arrays and 58 pulmonary resection samples from stage I to stage III NSCLC patients were studied using immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting. High levels of GLK proteins were detected in pulmonary tissues from NSCLC patients. Elevated GLK protein levels were correlated with increased recurrence risks and poor recurrence-free survival rates in NSCLC patients after adjusting for pathologic stage, smoking status, alcohol status, and EGFR levels. Thus, GLK is a novel prognostic biomarker for NSCLC recurrence.

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