Clinical Research Papers:

A global assessment of the male predominance in esophageal adenocarcinoma

Shao-Hua Xie _ and Jesper Lagergren

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:38876-38883. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9113

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Shao-Hua Xie1, Jesper Lagergren1,2

1Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden

2Section of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Division of Cancer Studies, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Correspondence to:

Shao-Hua Xie, email: [email protected]

Keywords: esophageal adenocarcinoma, sex difference, male predominance, incidence, epidemiology

Received: March 01, 2016     Accepted: April 16, 2016     Published: April 29, 2016


Background: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is characterized by a male predominance. However, variations in the sex difference across populations and over time have not previously been thoroughly investigated.

Results: The male-to-female ratio in EAC incidence varied greatly across continents, ranging from 1.03 in Africa to 7.64 in Northern America during 2003– 2007. The ratio was high in Europe (6.04) and Oceania (6.24), and lower in Asia (4.37) and Latin America and the Caribbean (3.94). The sex ratio remained relatively stable over time in most populations. In absolute terms, the sex difference in EAC incidence increased over time in populations of higher incidence, while it remained stable or slightly decreased in low-incidence populations.

Materials and Methods: We used data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series to compute sex-specific age-standardized rates of EAC by population. The sex difference in incidence was evaluated on both absolute and relative scales, measured by the absolute difference and ratio between sexes, respectively.

Conclusions: This first global assessment of the sex ratio in EAC shows that the male predominance is particularly strong in developed countries. The underlying reasons remain to be identified, but the emerging EAC burden in men merits consideration for targeted prevention and early detection.

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