Research Papers: Gerotarget (Focus on Aging):

Adaptive response to chronic mild ethanol stress involves ROS, sirtuins and changes in chromosome dosage in wine yeasts

Jagoda Adamczyk, Anna Deregowska, Marek Skoneczny, Adrianna Skoneczna, Aleksandra Kwiatkowska, Leszek Potocki, Ewa Rawska, Sylwia Pabian, Jakub Kaplan, Anna Lewinska and Maciej Wnuk _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:29958-29976. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8673

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Jagoda Adamczyk1,*, Anna Deregowska1,2,*, Marek Skoneczny3,*, Adrianna Skoneczna4, Aleksandra Kwiatkowska1, Leszek Potocki1, Ewa Rawska1, Sylwia Pabian1, Jakub Kaplan1, Anna Lewinska5,** and Maciej Wnuk1,**

1 Department of Genetics, University of Rzeszow, Rejtana, Rzeszow, Poland

2 Postgraduate School of Molecular Medicine, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

3 Department of Genetics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

4 Laboratory of Mutagenesis and DNA Repair, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

5 Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland

* These authors have contributed equally as first authors

** These authors have contributed equally as last authors

Correspondence to:

Anna Lewinska, email:

Maciej Wnuk, email:

Keywords: wine yeasts, genome, array-CGH, ethanol, sirtuins, Gerotarget

Received: February 21, 2016 Accepted: April 03, 2016 Published: April 10, 2016


Industrial yeast strains of economic importance used in winemaking and beer production are genomically diverse and subjected to harsh environmental conditions during fermentation. In the present study, we investigated wine yeast adaptation to chronic mild alcohol stress when cells were cultured for 100 generations in the presence of non-cytotoxic ethanol concentration. Ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide signals promoted growth rate during passages that was accompanied by increased expression of sirtuin proteins, Sir1, Sir2 and Sir3, and DNA-binding transcription regulator Rap1. Genome-wide array-CGH analysis revealed that yeast genome was shaped during passages. The gains of chromosomes I, III and VI and significant changes in the gene copy number in nine functional gene categories involved in metabolic processes and stress responses were observed. Ethanol-mediated gains of YRF1 and CUP1 genes were the most accented. Ethanol also induced nucleolus fragmentation that confirms that nucleolus is a stress sensor in yeasts. Taken together, we postulate that wine yeasts of different origin may adapt to mild alcohol stress by shifts in intracellular redox state promoting growth capacity, upregulation of key regulators of longevity, namely sirtuins and changes in the dosage of genes involved in the telomere maintenance and ion detoxification.

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