Research Papers:

Association of coffee consumption with risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

Yong Gan _, Jiang Wu, Shengchao Zhang, Liqing Li, Shiyi Cao, Naomie Mkandawire, Kun Ji, Chulani Herath, Chao Gao, Hong Xu, Yanfeng Zhou, Xingyue Song, Shanquan Chen, Yawen Chen, Tingting Yang, Jing Li, Yan Qiao, Sai Hu, Xiaoxv Yin and Zuxun Lu

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:18699-18711. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8627

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Yong Gan1,*, Jiang Wu2,*, Shengchao Zhang2, Liqing Li1,3, Shiyi Cao1, Naomie Mkandawire1, Kun Ji4, Chulani Herath1, Chao Gao5, Hong Xu1, Yanfeng Zhou1, Xingyue Song1, Shanquan Chen6, Yawen Chen1, Tingting Yang1, Jing Li1, Yan Qiao1, Sai Hu1, Xiaoxv Yin1, Zuxun Lu1

1Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China

2Bao’an Central Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China

3Department of Management, School of Economics and Management, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China

4Department of Pathophysiology, Shenyang Medical College, Shenyang, Liaoning, China

5National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, Changping, China

6Division of Health System, Policy and Management, JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong SAR, China

*These authors have contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Zuxun Lu, e-mail: [email protected]

Xiaoxv Yin, e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: coffee, colorectal cancer, prospective cohort, meta-analysis, epidemiology

Received: October 28, 2015    Accepted: March 23, 2016    Published: April 07, 2016


A meta-analysis was performed to assess the association of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer and to investigate the shape of the association. Relevant prospective cohort studies were identified by a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases from their inception through August 2015. Either a random-effects model or fixed-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates when appropriate. Linear and nonlinear dose-response meta-analyses were also performed. Nineteen prospective cohort studies involving 2,046,575 participants and 22,629 patients with colorectal cancer were included. The risk of colon cancer was decreased by 7% for every 4 cups per day of coffee (RR=0.93, 95%CI, 0.88-0.99; P=0.199). There was a threshold approximately five cups of coffee per day, and the inverse association for colorectal cancer appeared to be stronger at a higher range of intake. However, a nonlinear association of rectal cancer with coffee consumption was not observed (P for nonlinearity = 0.214). In conclusion, coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer at ≥ 5 cups per day of coffee consumption. The findings support the recommendations of including coffee as a healthy beverage for the prevention of colorectal cancer.

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