Oncogene and therapeutic target analyses in atypical fibroxanthomas and pleomorphic dermal sarcomas
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Doris Helbig1,*, Michaela Angelika Ihle2,*, Katharina Pütz2, Iliana Tantcheva-Poor1, Cornelia Mauch1, Reinhard Büttner2, Alexander Quaas2
1Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
2Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Doris Helbig, e-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: atypical fibroxanthoma, CDK4, CCND1, pleomorphic dermal sarcoma, TP53
Received: January 05, 2016 Accepted: February 21, 2016 Published: March 02, 2016
Background: Until now, almost nothing is known about the tumorigenesis of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) and pleomorphic dermal sarcoma (PDS). Our hypothesis is that AFX is the non-infiltrating precursor lesion of PDS.
Materials and Methods: We performed the world-wide most comprehensive immunohistochemical and mutational analysis in well-defined AFX (n=5) and PDS (n=5).
Results: In NGS-based mutation analyses of selected regions by a 17 hotspot gene panel of 102 amplicons we could detect TP53 mutations in all PDS as well as in the only analyzed AFX and PDS of the same patient. Besides, we detected mutations in the CDKN2A, HRAS, KNSTRN and PIK3CA genes.
Performing immunohistochemistry for CTNNB1, KIT, CDK4, c-MYC, CTLA-4, CCND1, EGFR, EPCAM, ERBB2, IMP3, INI-1, MKI67, MDM2, MET, p40, TP53, PD-L1 and SOX2 overexpression of TP53, CCND1 and CDK4 was seen in AFX as well as in PDS. IMP3 was upregulated in 2 AFX (weak staining) and 4 PDS (strong staining).
FISH analyses for the genes FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3 revealed negative results in all tumors.
Conclusions: UV-induced TP53 mutations as well as CCND1/CDK4 changes seem to play essential roles in tumorigenesis of PDS. Furthermore, we found some more interesting mutated genes in other oncogene pathways (activating mutations of HRAS and PIK3CA). All AFX and PDS investigated immunohistochemically presented with similar oncogene expression profiles (TP53, CCND1, CDK4 overexpression) and the single case with an AFX and PDS showed complete identical TP53 and PIK3CA mutation profiles in both tumors. This reinforces our hypothesis that AFX is the non-infiltrating precursor lesion of PDS.
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