Research Papers:

Predictive value of GGN and CAG repeat polymorphisms of androgen receptors in testicular cancer: a meta-analysis

Weijun Jiang, Jing Zhang, Qing Zhou, Shuaimei Liu, Mengxia Ni, Peiran Zhu, Qiuyue Wu, Weiwei Li, Mingchao Zhang and Xinyi Xia _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:13754-13764. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7337

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Weijun Jiang1, Jing Zhang1, Qing Zhou1, Shuaimei Liu1, Mengxia Ni1, Peiran Zhu1, Qiuyue Wu1, Weiwei Li1, Mingchao Zhang1, Xinyi Xia1

1Department of Reproduction and Genetics, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing 210002, P.R. China

Correspondence to:

Xinyi Xia, e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: androgen receptor, GGN repeat, CAG repeat, testicular cancer, polymorphism

Received: October 22, 2015     Accepted: January 29, 2016     Published: February 12, 2016


The risk of testicular cancer (TC) is markedly increased in subjects with androgen insensitivity, and previous studies have proposed that GGN and CAG repeats in androgen receptors (AR) could be related to the risk of TC. To evaluate the association between the length of GGN and CAG repeats in AR and TC, a meta-analysis involving 3255 TC cases and 2804 controls was performed. The results suggested that long GGN repeats are associated with an increased risk of TC compared with those < 23 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–1.41]; similarly, a subgroup analysis revealed that this association occurred in studies with case sizes > 200, and in the mid-latitude, and seminoma subgroups. The subgroup analysis based on populations, high-latitude, and seminomas/non-seminomas suggested that AR CAG repeat polymorphisms with > 25 and < 21 + > 25 repeats might confer a protective effect to the patients with TC (in the high-latitude subgroup analysis, for > 25 vs. 21–25: OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.41–0.70). In contrast, an increased risk of TC was observed for AR CAG repeat polymorphisms with > 25 and < 21 + > 25 repeats in the mid-latitude subgroup (for > 25 vs. 21–25: OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09–2.50). In addition, no associations between the remaining subgroups and male infertility were observed. In short, this meta-analysis suggested that AR GGN and CAG repeat polymorphisms may be involved in the etiology of TC.

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