Multiple gene sequencing for risk assessment in patients with early-onset or familial breast cancer
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Po-Han Lin1,2, Wen-Hung Kuo3, Ai-Chu Huang2, Yen-Shen Lu4, Ching-Hung Lin4, Sung-Hsin Kuo4, Ming-Yang Wang3, Chun-Yu Liu6, Fiona Tsui-Fen Cheng7, Ming-Hsin Yeh8, Huei-Ying Li2, Yu-Hsuan Yang2, Yu-Hua Hsu2, Sheng-Chih Fan2, Long-Yuan Li9, Sung-Liang Yu10, King-Jen Chang11, Pei-Lung Chen2, Yen-Hsuan Ni2,5, Chiun-Sheng Huang3
1Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
2Department of Medical Genetics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
3Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
4Department of Medical Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
5Department of Pediatrics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
6Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
7Department of Surgery, Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
8Department of Surgery, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
9Graduate Institute of Cancer Biology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
10Center of Genomic Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
11Department of Surgery, Cheng Ching Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Chiun-Sheng Huang, e-mail: email@example.com
Yen-Hsuan Ni, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: multiple gene sequencing, hereditary breast cancer, BRCA, variant of uncertain significance, genetic counseling
Received: July 02, 2015 Accepted: January 01, 2016 Published: January 27, 2016
Since BRCA mutations are only responsible for 10–20% of cases of breast cancer in patients with early-onset or a family history and since next-generation sequencing technology allows the simultaneous sequencing of a large number of target genes, testing for multiple cancer-predisposing genes is now being considered, but its significance in clinical practice remains unclear. We then developed a sequencing panel containing 68 genes that had cancer risk association for patients with early-onset or familial breast cancer. A total of 133 patients were enrolled and 30 (22.6%) were found to carry germline deleterious mutations, 9 in BRCA1, 11 in BRCA2, 2 in RAD50, 2 in TP53 and one each in ATM, BRIP1, FANCI, MSH2, MUTYH, and RAD51C. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) was associated with the highest mutation rate (45.5%, p = 0.025). Seven of the 9 BRCA1 mutations and the single FANCI mutation were in the TNBC group; 9 of the 11 BRCA2, 1 of the 2 RAD50 as well as BRIP1, MSH2, MUTYH, and RAD51C mutations were in the hormone receptor (HR)(+)Her2(−) group, and the other RAD50, ATM, and TP53 mutations were in the HR(+)Her2(+) group. Mutation carriers were considered as high-risk to develop malignancy and advised to receive cancer screening. Screening protocols of non-BRCA genes were based on their biologic functions; for example, patients carrying RAD51C mutation received a screening protocol similar to that for BRCA, since BRCA and RAD51C are both involved in homologous recombination. In conclusion, we consider that multiple gene sequencing in cancer risk assessment is clinically valuable.
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