Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology
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Ying Liu1,*, Zheming Lu1,*, Ruiping Xu2, Yang Ke1
1Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Laboratory of Genetics, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China
2Anyang Cancer Hospital, Henan Province, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Yang Ke, e-mail: [email protected]
Zheming Lu, e-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: HPV integration, cervical carcinoma, HPV capture, next generation sequencing
Received: July 12, 2015 Accepted: December 22, 2015 Published: December 31, 2015
Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.
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