Phenotype and function of CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells were altered in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma and elevated serum CXCL13 predicted better prognosis
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Zhaojun Duan1,*, Jian Gao1,*, Ling Zhang2, Hua Liang3, Xiangbo Huang1, Qiang Xu1, Yu Zhang4, Tao Shen1, Fengmin Lu1
1Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
2Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
3State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Beijing, China
4Department of Immunology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Fengmin Lu, e-mail: email@example.com
Tao Shen, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: T follicular helper cells, CXCL13, HCC, HBV, prognosis
Received: July 11, 2015 Accepted: October 11, 2015 Published: October 26, 2015
The present study reveals an immunological characterization of circulating and tumor-infiltrating T follicular helper cells (Tfh), namely CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ T cells, and their related cytokines in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. In HCC patients, circulating Tfh cells showed a CCR7+ and/or ICOS+ phenotype with increased Th2-like cells and decreased Th1-like and Th17-like subsets. Although the bulk frequency of circulating Tfh cells was not altered in HCC patients, the frequency of infiltrated CXCR5+CD45RA−CD4+ CD3+cells was higher in tumor than in para-tumor tissues, and Th1-like cells were the predominant phenotype. Circulating Tfh cells in HCC patients were defective in the production of IL-21 in vitro, which was in accordance with lower IL-21 levels in tumor tissues than in para-tumor tissues. Serum CXCL13 was increased in HCC patients and associated with recurrence-free survival after hepatectomy. This was confirmed in an additional HCC cohort of 111 patients with up to 5 years follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the percentage of CXCR5+ or CXCL13+ cells was higher in poorly differentiated than in well-differentiated tumors. In conclusion, patients with HBV-related HCC showed altered phenotypes and impaired function of Tfh cells or subpopulations. CXCL13 could be a potential biomarker for predicting recurrence in HCC patients after hepatectomy.
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