CCN: core regulatory proteins in the microenvironment that affect the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma?
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Qingan Jia1,2, Qiongzhu Dong1 and Lunxiu Qin1,2
1 Cancer Center, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2 Department of General Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University; Cancer Metastasis Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
Lunxiu Qin, email:
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, CCN family proteins, metastasis, inflammatory microenvironment
Received: July 26, 2015 Accepted: October 09, 2015 Published: October 21, 2015
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from an underlying chronic liver inflammatory disease, such as chronic hepatitis B or C virus infections, and the general prognosis of patients with HCC still remains extremely dismal because of the high frequency of HCC metastases. Throughout the process of tumor metastasis, tumor cells constantly communicate with the surrounding microenvironment and improve their malignant phenotype. Therefore, there is a strong rationale for targeting the tumor microenvironment as primary treatment of HCC therapies. Recently, CCN family proteins have emerged as localized multitasking signal integrators in the inflammatory microenvironment. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of CCN family proteins in inflammation and the tumor. We also propose that the CCN family proteins may play a central role in signaling the tumor microenvironment and regulating the metastasis of HCC.
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