High intensity focused ultrasound enhances anti-tumor immunity by inhibiting the negative regulatory effect of miR-134 on CD86 in a murine melanoma model
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Shi-Mei Yuan1,*, Huan Li1,*, Min Yang1, He Zha1, Hui Sun1, Xue-Ru Li1, Ai-Fang Li1, Yue Gu1, Liang Duan1, Jin-Yong Luo1, Chong-Yan Li2, Yan Wang2, Zhi-Biao Wang2, Tong-Chuan He1,3, Lan Zhou1
1Key Laboratory of Clinical Diagnosis of Education Ministry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
2State Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Engineering in Medicine Co-founded by Chongqing and the Ministry of Science and Technology, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound in Medicine and Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
3Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, The University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Lan Zhou, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: HIFU, anti-tumor immunity, microRNA, co-stimulatory molecules
Received: June 15, 2015 Accepted: August 16, 2015 Published: October 16, 2015
HIFU has been demonstrated to enhance anti-tumor immunity, however, the mechanism of which has not been well elucidated. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs play important roles in immune response. In this study, we used the B16F10 melanoma allograft mouse model to investigate the role of miRNAs in HIFU-enhanced anti-tumor immunity. We found that HIFU treatment decreased circulating B16F10 cells and pulmonary metastasis nodules while increased IFN-γ and TNF-α in the peripheral blood and cumulative mouse survival, which was associated with inhibition of miR-134 expression and activation of CD86 expression in tumor tissues. Further, we determined that miR-134 directly binds to the 3′UTR of CD86 mRNA to suppress its expression in B16F10 cells. When B16F10 cells transfected with miR-134 were co-cultured with normal splenic lymphocytes, the secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α from lymphocytes was reduced and B16F10 cell survival was increased. HIFU exposure efficiently decreased miR-134 while increased CD86 expression in B16F10 cells in vitro. CD86 knockdown with siRNA markedly rescued the viability of HIFU-treated B16F10 cells that co-cultured with lymphocytes. Altogether, our results suggest that HIFU down-regulates miR-134 to release the inhibition of miR-134 on CD86 in melanoma cells, thereby enhancing anti-tumor immune response.
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