Adaptive responses of androgen receptor signaling in castration-resistant prostate cancer
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Sven Perner1,*, Marcus V. Cronauer2,*, Andres Jan Schrader3,*, Helmut Klocker4,*, Zoran Culig5,* and Aria Baniahmad6,*
1 Section for Prostate Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne/Bonn, University Hospital of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
2 Department of Urology, Ulm University Medical Center, Germany
3 Department of Urology, Muenster University Medical Center, Germany
4 Division of Experimental Urology, Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria
5 Department of Urology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria
6 Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Germany
* These authors have contributed equally to this work
Aria Baniahmad, email:
Keywords: androgen receptor, prostate cancer
Received: March 12, 2015 Accepted: June 04, 2015 Published: June 29, 2015
Prostate Cancer (PCa) is an important age-related disease being the most common cancer malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in men in Western countries. Initially, PCa progression is androgen receptor (AR)- and androgen-dependent. Eventually advanced PCa reaches the stage of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC), but remains dependent on AR, which indicates the importance of AR activity also for CRPC. Here, we discuss various pathways that influence the AR activity in CRPC, which indicates an adaptation of the AR signaling in PCa to overcome the treatment of PCa. The adaptation pathways include interferences of the normal regulation of the AR protein level, the expression of AR variants, the crosstalk of the AR with cytokine tyrosine kinases, the Src-Akt-, the MAPK-signaling pathways and AR corepressors. Furthermore, we summarize the current treatment options with regard to the underlying molecular basis of the common adaptation processes of AR signaling that may arise after the treatment with AR antagonists, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as well as for CRPC, and point towards novel therapeutic strategies. The understanding of individualized adaptation processes in PCa will lead to individualized treatment options in the future.
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