Does beer, wine or liquor consumption correlate with the risk of renal cell carcinoma? A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
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Xin Xu1, Yi Zhu1, Xiangyi Zheng1, Liping Xie1
1Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Liping Xie, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: alcohol, renal cell carcinoma, epidemiology, risk factor, meta-analysis
Received: February 24, 2015 Accepted: April 15, 2015 Published: April 29, 2015
Despite plenty of evidence supports an inverse association between alcohol drinking and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), sex-specific and beverage-specific dose-response relationships have not been well established. We examined this association by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Studies were identified by comprehensively searching PubMed and EMBASE databases through February 21, 2015. Categorical and dose-response meta-analyses were conducted to identify the effects of alcohol on RCC. A total of eight publications (including seven cohort studies and one pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies) were eligible for this meta-analysis. Dose-response analysis showed that each 5 g/day increment of alcohol intake corresponded to a 5% decrease in risk of RCC for males and 9% for females. Alcohol intakes from wine, beer, and liquor were each associated with a reduced risk of RCC. When these associations were examined separately by gender, statistically significant inverse associations were restricted to alcohol from wine among females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.73–0.91) and to alcohol from beer and from liquor among males (RR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.83–0.91 and RR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92–0.99, respectively). In conclusion, there exist gender-specific and beverage-specific differences in the association between alcohol intake and RCC risk.
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