Research Papers:

Detection of tyrosine kinase inhibitors-induced COX-2 expression in bladder cancer by fluorocoxib A

Jennifer Bourn, Sony Pandey, Jashim Uddin, Lawrence Marnett and Maria Cekanova _

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Oncotarget. 2019; 10:5168-5180. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27125

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Jennifer Bourn1,2,4, Sony Pandey1, Jashim Uddin3, Lawrence Marnett3 and Maria Cekanova1,2

1 Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

2 University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Graduate School of Genome Science and Technology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA

3 A. B. Hancock, Jr., Memorial Laboratory for Cancer Research, Departments of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmacology, Vanderbilt Institute of Chemical Biology, Center for Molecular Toxicology and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA

4 Current address: Department of Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA

Correspondence to:

Maria Cekanova,email: [email protected]

Keywords: bladder cancer; TKIs; RTKIs; COX-2; targeted therapies

Received: June 18, 2019     Accepted: July 17, 2019     Published: August 27, 2019


Among challenges of targeted therapies is the activation of alternative pro-survival signaling pathways in cancer cells, resulting in an acquired drug resistance. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in bladder cancer cells, making it an attractive molecular target for the detection and treatment of cancer. Fluorocoxib A is an optical imaging agent that selectively targets COX-2. In this study, we evaluated the ability of fluorocoxib A to monitor the responses of bladder cancer to targeted therapies in vivo. The effects of several tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs: axitinib, AB1010, toceranib, imatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, imatinib, sorafenib, vandetanib, SP600125, UO126, and AZD 5438) on COX-2 expression were validated in ten human and canine bladder cancer cell lines (J82, RT4, T24, UM-UC-3, 5637, SW780, TCCSUP, K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, K9TCC#5Lilly) in vitro. The effects of TKIs on bladder cancer in vivo were evaluated using the COX-2-expressing K9TCC#5Lilly xenograft mouse model and detected by fluorocoxib A. The increased COX-2 expression was detected by all tested TKIs in at least one of the tested COX-2-expressing bladder cancer cell lines (5637, SW780, TCCSUP, K9TCC#1Lillie, K9TCC#2Dakota, and K9TCC#5Lilly) in vitro. In addition, fluorocoxib A uptake correlated with the AB1010- and imatinib-induced COX-2 expression in the K9TCC#5Lilly xenografts in vivo. In conclusion, these results indicate that fluorocoxib A could be used for the monitoring the early responses to targeted therapies in COX-2-expressing bladder cancer.

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