Diverse effects of phospholipase A2 receptor expression on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo
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Markus Friedemann1, Brit Nacke1, Albert Hagelgans1, Carsten Jandeck1, Nicole Bechmann1, Martin Ullrich2, Birgit Belter2, Christin Neuber2, Olga Sukocheva3, Jens Pietzsch2,4 and Mario Menschikowski1
1Technische Universität Dresden, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 01307 Dresden, Germany
2Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Department of Radiopharmaceutical and Chemical Biology, 01328 Dresden, Germany
3School of Health Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park 5042, Australia
4Technische Universität Dresden, School of Science, Faculty of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, 01062 Dresden, Germany
Jens Pietzsch, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mario Menschikowski, email: Mario.Menschikowski@uniklinikum-dresden.de
Keywords: PLA2R1 transfection; LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cells; proliferation; colony formation; xenograft mouse model
Received: May 02, 2018 Accepted: October 24, 2018 Published: November 13, 2018
Physiological and pathophysiological functions of the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) are still not completely understood. To elucidate PLA2R1’s function in prostate carcinoma, the receptor was ectopically overexpressed in LNCaP with silenced PLA2R1, and diminished in PC-3 cells with constitutively increased PLA2R1 expression relative to normal prostate epithelial cells. LNCaP cells were transfected to overexpress PLA2R1 (LNCaP-PLA2R1) and compared to control vector transfected cells (LNCaP-Ctrl). Alternatively, a CRISPR/Cas9-knockdown of PLA2R1 was achieved in PC-3 cells (PC-3 KD) and compared to the corresponding control-transfected cells (PC-3 Ctrl). The impact of PLA2R1 expression on proliferative and metastatic parameters was analysed in vitro. A pilot in vivo study addressed the effects of PLA2R1 in mice xenografted with transfected LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Cell viability/proliferation and motility were significantly increased in LNCaP-PLA2R1 and PC-3 Ctrl compared to LNCaP-Ctrl and PC-3 KD cells, respectively. However, levels of apoptosis, clonogenicity and cell invasion were reduced in LNCaP-PLA2R1 and PC-3 Ctrl cells. Gene expression analysis revealed an up-regulation of fibronectin 1 (FN1), TWIST homolog 1 (TWIST1), and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) in LNCaP-PLA2R1. In LNCaP xenografts, PLA2R1-dependent regulation of clonogenicity appeared to outweigh the receptor’s pro-oncogenic properties, resulting in decreased tumour growth, supporting the tumour-suppressive role of PLA2R1. Alternatively, PC-3 Ctrl xenografts exhibited faster tumour growth compared to PC-3 KD cells, suggesting a pro-oncogenic effect of endogenous PLA2R1 expression. The differential growth-regulatory effects of PLA2R1 may be mediated by FN1, TWIST1, and CDK6 expression, although further investigation is required.
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