Fludarabine-resistance associates with ceramide metabolism and leukemia stem cell development in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
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Chunfa Huang1, Yifan Tu1 and Carl E. Freter1
1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA
Chunfa Huang, email: [email protected]
Keywords: ceramide; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; drug-resistance; fludarabine; glucosylceramide
Received: March 26, 2018 Accepted: August 13, 2018 Published: September 04, 2018
Fludarabine (flu) -containing regimens such as flu, cyclophosphamide and rituximab have been established as one of the standard first line therapy in medically-fit chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients. Therefore, flu-refractory (primary flu-insensitivity or flu-caused relapse) remains a major problem causing treatment failure for CLL patients. We isolated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from CLL patients and treated with flu to find flu-refractory cases, and established flu-resistant clonal cells to study molecular mechanism of flu-resistance. By comparing parental MEC-2 cells, a human CLL cell line, we found that flu-resistant clonal cells were significantly increased lethal dose 50 of flu concentration, and up-regulated expression of P-glycoprotein, a drug-resistant marker, glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), an enzyme that can convert ceramide to glucosylceramide, and CD34, a leukemia stem cell marker. Overexpression of GCS leads to promptly elimination of cellular ceramide levels and accumulation of glucosylceramide, which reduces apoptosis and promotes survival and proliferation of flu-resistant clonal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the accumulation of glucosylceramide can be blocked by PDMP to restore flu-sensitivity in flu-resistant clonal cells. We also found that elevating glucosylceramide levels in flu-resistant clonal cells was associated with up-regulation of GCS and CD34 expression. Importantly, overexpression of GCS or CD34 was also determined in flu-refractory PBMCs. Our results show that flu-resistance is associated with the alteration of ceramide metabolism and the development of leukemia stem cell-like cells. The flu-resistance can be reversed by GCS inhibition as a novel strategy for overcoming drug resistance.
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