Concomitant driver mutations in advanced EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer and their impact on erlotinib treatment
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Jan Nyrop Jakobsen1,*, Eric Santoni-Rugiu2,*, Morten Grauslund2, Linea Melchior2 and Jens Benn Sørensen1
1Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital/Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
2Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital/Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
*Equal first authors
Jan Nyrop Jakobsen, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Eric Santoni-Rugiu, email: email@example.com
Keywords: NSCLC; EGFR; erlotinib; tarceva; mutation
Received: February 19, 2018 Accepted: May 05, 2018 Published: May 25, 2018
Background: Patients with EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like erlotinib. However, the efficacy may be impaired by driver mutations in other genes.
Methods: Five hundred and fourteen consecutive patients with NSCLC of all stages were tested for EGFR-mutations by cobas® EGFR Mutation Test. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for MET-amplification, immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MET- and ALK-expression, and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for concomitant driver mutations were performed on EGFR-mutated tumor samples from erlotinib-treated patients.
Results: Thirty-six patients (7%) had EGFR-mutations, including 2 with intrinsic resistance mutation p.T790M together with the p.L858R sensitizing mutation and 1 harboring the p.G719C/S768I double-mutation. Twenty-three patients had either locally advanced or advanced disease and received first-line erlotinib-treatment. Concomitant driver mutations were found in 15/21 (71%) of NGS-analyzed TKI-treated NSCLCs, involving in 67% of cases TP53, in 13% CTNNB1, and in 7% KRAS, MET, SMAD4, PIK3CA, FGFR1, FGFR3, NRAS, DDR2, and ERBB4. No ALK-expression was found, whereas MET-overexpression and MET-amplification were observed in 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Objective responses occurred in 17/23 patients (74%), 4 did not respond (17%), and 2 harboring a SMAD4-mutation (p.R135*(stop)) and a FGFR3-mutation (p.D785fs*31), respectively, displayed mixed response with simultaneously progressing and responding tumors (8.7%). Thus, EGFR-mutated tumors harboring co-mutations were not less likely to respond.
Conclusion: Co-mutations in other cancer-driver genes (oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes) were frequent in EGFR-mutated NSCLCs and few cases harbored concomitant activating and resistance EGFR-mutations before TKI-treatment. Most co-mutations did not impact the response to first-line erlotinib-treatment, but may represent potential additional therapeutic targets.
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