Chloride intracellular channel 1 as a switch among tumor behaviors in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma
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Toshiyuki Kobayashi1,*, Atsushi Shiozaki1,*, Yoshito Nako1, Daisuke Ichikawa1,2, Toshiyuki Kosuga1, Katsutoshi Shoda1, Tomohiro Arita1, Hirotaka Konishi1, Shuhei Komatsu1, Takeshi Kubota1, Hitoshi Fujiwara1, Kazuma Okamoto1, Mitsuo Kishimoto3, Eiichi Konishi3, Yoshinori Marunaka 4,5 and Eigo Otsuji1
1Division of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan
2Department of Gastrointestinal, Breast & Endocrine Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, 409-3898, Japan
3Department of Pathology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan
4Departments of Molecular Cell Physiology and Bio-Ionomics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 602-8566, Japan
5Japan Institute for Food Education and Health, St. Agnes’ University, Kyoto, 602-8013, Japan
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Atsushi Shiozaki, email: [email protected]
Keywords: CLIC1; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; TLR2/JNK pathway; tumor survival; cellular movement
Received: January 22, 2018 Accepted: April 10, 2018 Published: May 01, 2018
Background: Recent studies have reported important roles for chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) in various cancers; however, its involvement in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CLIC1 in human ESCC. Methods: CLIC1 expression in human ESCC cell lines was analyzed by Western blotting. Knockdown experiments were conducted with CLIC1 siRNA, and their effects on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed using a microarray analysis. An immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 61 primary tumor samples obtained from ESCC patients who underwent esophagectomy. Results: ESCC cells strongly expressed CLIC1. The depletion of CLIC1 using siRNA inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and promoted cell migration and invasion. The results of the microarray analysis revealed that the depletion of CLIC1 regulated apoptosis via the TLR2/JNK pathway. Immunohistochemistry showed that CLIC1 was present in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells, and that the very strong or very weak expression of CLIC1 was an independent poor prognostic factor. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the very strong expression of CLIC1 enhances tumor survival, while its very weak expression promotes cellular movement. The present study provides an insight into the role of CLIC1 as a switch among tumor behaviors in ESCC.
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