The use of long non-coding RNAs as prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in prostate cancer
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Cristian Arriaga-Canon1, Inti Alberto De La Rosa-Velázquez2, Rodrigo González-Barrios3, Rogelio Montiel-Manríquez3, Diego Oliva-Rico3, Francisco Jiménez-Trejo4, Carlo Cortés-González3 and Luis A. Herrera3
1CONACYT- Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Tlalpan. C.P. 14080, CDMX, Mexico
2Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Laboratorio de Genómica, CIC-Red de Apoyo a la Investigación, INCMNSZ, Colonia Belisario Domínguez Sección XVI, Delegación Tlalpan C.P.14080, CDMX, Mexico
3Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología-Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Tlalpan. C.P. 14080, CDMX, Mexico
4Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Coyoacán. C.P. 04530, CDMX, Mexico
Luis A. Herrera, email: [email protected]
Keywords: long non-coding RNAs; prostate cancer; prognosis; precision medicine; therapeutic targets
Received: July 04, 2017 Accepted: March 15, 2018 Published: April 17, 2018
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The most used biomarker to detect prostate cancer is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), whose levels are measured in serum. However, it has been recently established that molecular markers of cancer should not be based solely on genes and proteins but should also reflect other genomic traits; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve this purpose. lncRNAs are transcripts of >200 bases that do not encode proteins and that have been shown to display abnormal expression profiles in different types of cancer. Experimental studies have highlighted lncRNAs as potential biomarkers for prognoses and treatments in patients with different types of cancer, including prostate cancer, where the PCA3 lncRNA is currently used as a diagnostic tool and management strategy. With the development of genomic technologies, particularly next-generation sequencing (NGS), several other lncRNAs have been linked to prostate cancer and are currently under validation for their medical use. In this review, we will discuss different strategies for the discovery of novel lncRNAs that can be evaluated as prognostic biomarkers, the clinical impact of these lncRNAs and how lncRNAs can be used as potential therapeutic targets.
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