Cold atmospheric plasma as a potential tool for multiple myeloma treatment
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Dehui Xu1,2,*, Yujing Xu1,*, Qingjie Cui2, Dingxin Liu1, Zhijie Liu1, Xiaohua Wang1, Yanjie Yang3, Miaojuan Feng4, Rong Liang4, Hailan Chen5, Kai Ye6,7 and Michael G. Kong1,5,8
1State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049, P.R. China
2The School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049, P.R. China
3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of the Medical School, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710061, P.R. China
4Department of Hematology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710032, P.R. China
5Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 23508, USA
6School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710049, P.R. China
7First Affiliated Hospital of the Medical School, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 710061, P.R. China
8Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 23529, USA
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Michael G. Kong, email: [email protected]
Kai Ye, email: [email protected]
Keywords: multiple myeloma; cold atmospheric plasma; reactive oxygen species; CD95; selective inactivation
Received: November 09, 2017 Accepted: January 30, 2018 Published: April 06, 2018
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a fatal and incurable hematological malignancy thus new therapy need to be developed. Cold atmospheric plasma, a new technology that could generate various active species, could efficiently induce various tumor cells apoptosis. More details about the interaction of plasma and tumor cells need to be addressed before the application of gas plasma in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that He+O2 plasma could efficiently induce myeloma cell apoptosis through the activation of CD95 and downstream caspase cascades. Extracellular and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation is essential for CD95-mediated cell apoptosis in response to plasma treatment. Furthermore, p53 is shown to be a key transcription factor in activating CD95 and caspase cascades. More importantly, we demonstrate that CD95 expression is higher in tumor cells than in normal cells in both MM cell lines and MM clinical samples, which suggests that CD95 could be a favorable target for plasma treatment as it could selectively inactivate myeloma tumor cells. Our results illustrate the molecular details of plasma induced myeloma cell apoptosis and it shows that gas plasma could be a potential tool for myeloma therapy in the future.
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