Research Papers:

Efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiotherapy for lacrimal gland carcinomas with extraorbital extension: a retrospective cohort study

Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masashi Koto _, Hiroaki Ikawa, Kazuhiko Ogawa and Tadashi Kamada

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Oncotarget. 2018; 9:12932-12940. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24390

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Kazuhiko Hayashi1, Masashi Koto1, Hiroaki Ikawa1, Kazuhiko Ogawa2 and Tadashi Kamada1

1Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba, Japan

2Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan

Correspondence to:

Masashi Koto, email: [email protected]

Keywords: carbon-ion radiotherapy; lacrimal gland carcinoma; extraorbital extension; safety; efficacy

Received: November 03, 2017     Accepted: January 30, 2018     Published: February 03, 2018


Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for patients with lacrimal gland carcinomas (LGCs) with extraorbital extension

Results: The median follow-up period was 53.7 months. The 5-year local control and overall survival rates were 62% and 65%, respectively. Regarding late toxicities, 12 patients (36.4%) developed Grade 4 optic nerve disorders, including visual losses of the diseased side (N = 8; 66.7%), and 1 patient (3.0%) developed a Grade 3 optic nerve disorder. Three patients (9.0%) developed Grade 3 cataracts, 3 (9.0%) developed glaucoma, and 1 (3.0%) developed retinopathy. Two patients (6.1%) had Grade 4 central nervous system necrosis. No Grade 5 late toxicities were observed. The 5-year preservation rate of the ipsilateral eyeball was 86%.

Conclusion: Definitive CIRT is effective for LGCs with extraorbital extension with acceptable toxicity.

Methods: Thirty-three patients treated with CIRT at our institution were analyzed. Sixteen patients (48.5%) had adenoid cystic carcinoma, 8 (24.2%) had adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and 9 (27.3%) had other types of the disease. Thirty patients (90.9%) had T4c tumors. The prescribed doses were 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) (N = 18; 54.5%) and 64.0 Gy (RBE) (N = 15; 45.5%) in 16 fractions.

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