Prognosis of men with penile metastasis and malignant priapism: a systematic review
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Andrea Cocci1, Oliver W. Hakenberg2, Tommaso Cai3, Gabriella Nesi4, Lorenzo Livi4, Beatrice Detti4, Andrea Minervini1, Girolamo Morelli5, Marco Carini1, Sergio Serni1 and Mauro Gacci1
1Department of Urology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
2Department of Urology, University Hospital Rostock, Rostock, Germany
3Department of Urology, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento, Italy
4University of Florence, Florence, Italy
5Department of Urology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
Andrea Cocci, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: penis metastasis; penile metastasis; penile cancer; penis cancer
Abbreviations: MESH: Medical Subject Headings
Received: August 05, 2017 Accepted: September 04, 2017 Published: December 18, 2017
Introduction: Metastases to the penis are rare, but can have severe consequences. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature in order to gain more information on the presentation and prognosis of this metastatic disease.
We reviewed the literature relating to all case reports, series and reviews about penile metastasis, from 2003 to 2013, through a Medline search. We identified 63 articles and 69 patients.
Metastases were located on the root (38.8%), the shaft (38.8%) or the glans (22.2%) of the penis. The diagnosis of penile metastasis was made after the primary cancer had been diagnosed. The most common presentation was a single small penile nodule. Ten patients reported priapism. The median survival time after diagnosis of penile metastasis was 10 months (range 6-18 months). A Kaplan-Meier analysis has shown that the patients presenting with priapism and those with metastases from non-urologic tumors have a significantly worse prognosis (age adjusted Log Rank: p=0.037 for priapism vs. no priapism and p=0.045 for urologic vs. non urologic).
There are prognostic differences based on the presentation of penile metastases. Survival is substantial and treatment should therefore take into account symptoms improvement and quality of life.
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