Antioxidant agents against trichothecenes: new hints for oxidative stress treatment
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Qinghua Wu1,2,*, Xu Wang3,*, Eugenie Nepovimova2, Yun Wang1, Hualin Yang1, Li Li1, Xiujuan Zhang4 and Kamil Kuca2
1College of Life Science, Institute of Biomedicine, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove 50003, Czech Republic
3National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
4College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Xiujuan Zhang, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Kamil Kuca, email: email@example.com
Keywords: trichothecenes; T-2 toxin; deoxynivalenol; oxidative stress; antioxidant agents
Received: September 03, 2017 Accepted: November 13, 2017 Published: November 30, 2017
Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by fungi of genus Fusarium. Due to high toxicity and widespread dissemination, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) are considered to be the most important compounds of this class. Trichothecenes generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce lipid peroxidation, decrease levels of antioxidant enzymes, and ultimately lead to apoptosis. Consequently, oxidative stress is an active area of research on the toxic mechanisms of trichothecenes, and identification of antioxidant agents that could be used against trichothecenes is crucial for human health. Numerous natural compounds have been analyzed and have shown to function very effectively as antioxidants against trichothecenes. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress induced by these compounds, and discuss current knowledge regarding such antioxidant agents as vitamins, quercetin, selenium, glucomannan, nucleotides, antimicrobial peptides, bacteria, polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides, and plant extracts. These products inhibit trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by (1) inhibiting ROS generation and induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation; (2) increasing antioxidant enzyme activity; (3) blocking the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways; (4) inhibiting caspase activity and apoptosis; (5) protecting mitochondria; and (6) regulating anti-inflammatory actions. Finally, we summarize some decontamination methods, including bacterial and yeast biotransformation and degradation, as well as mycotoxin-binding agents. This review provides a comprehensive overview of antioxidant agents against trichothecenes and casts new light on the attenuation of oxidative stress.
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