Exploring the molecular aspects associated with testicular germ cell tumors: a review
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Gaetano Facchini1,2, Sabrina Rossetti1,2, Carla Cavaliere3, Carmine D’Aniello4, Rossella Di Franco1,5, Gelsomina Iovane1,2, Giovanni Grimaldi6, Raffaele Piscitelli1, Paolo Muto5, Gerardo Botti7,8, Sisto Perdonà6, Bianca Maria Veneziani9, Massimiliano Berretta10 and Micaela Montanari1,9,11
1Progetto ONCONET2.0, Linea Progettuale 14 per l’Implementazione della Prevenzione e Diagnosi Precoce del Tumore alla Prostata e Testicolo, Regione Campania, Italy
2S.S.D Oncologia Clinica Sperimentale Uro-Andrologica, Dipartimento Corp-S Assistenziale dei Percorsi Oncologici Uro-Genitale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy
3Medical Oncology Unit, ASL NA 3 SUD, Ospedali Riuniti Area Nolana, Nola, Italy
4Division of Medical Oncology, A.O.R.N. dei COLLI "Ospedali Monaldi-Cotugno-CTO", Naples, Italy
5Radiation Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori “Fondazione Giovanni Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy
6Division of Urology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy
7Pathology Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy
8Scientific Management, Istituto Nazionale Tumori “Fondazione G. Pascale”, IRCCS, Naples, Italy
9Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy
10Department of Medical Oncology, CRO Aviano, National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy
11Department of Biology, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA
Micaela Montanari, email: [email protected]
Keywords: TGCTs, epigenetics, chemosensitivity, cisplatin-associated resistance
Received: September 30, 2017 Accepted: October 05, 2017 Published: November 03, 2017
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common solid tumors affecting young men. They constitute a distinct entity because of their embryonic origin and their unique biological behavior. Recent preclinical data regarding biological signaling machinery as well as genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with molecular patterns of tumors have contribute to explain the pathogenesis and the differentiation of TGCTs and to understand the mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance to treatment. In this review, we discuss the main genetic and epigenetic events associated with TGCTs development in order to better define their role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and in cisplatin-acquired resistance.
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