Differential activation of Toll-like receptor-mediated apoptosis induced by hypoxia
Metrics: PDF 3699 views | HTML 4033 views | ?
Received: December 6, 2010, Accepted: December 25, 2010, Published: December 25, 2010Ischemia-reperfusion injury induces intense inflammatory response and tissue damages resulting from the capacity of endogenous constituents called damageassociated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released by damaged or necrotic cells, to activate signaling pathways mediated by receptors of the innate immune systems. Among them, two members of the Toll-like receptors (TLR) family, TLR2 and TLR4 have been shown to play key roles in the induction of inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in a variety of ischemic tissues. The oxidative stress injury caused by I/R injury has been attributed to the activation of MAP kinase pathways, including those of ERK, JNK and p38. Here, we summarise recent findings concerning the role of the protein phosphatase 5 involved in the selective regulation of TLR2-mediated ERK1/2 signaling and the identification of the key role of the non-phagocytic NADPH oxidase 4 producing reactive oxygen species in the control of TLR4-mediated apoptosis in murine models of renal I/R injury and in post-hypoxic kidney tubule cells. The identification of molecules signaling involved in the ER stress-induced apoptotic signaling cascade may therefore represent potential targets to prevent the induction of apoptosis in hypoxic tissues.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.