Sulodexide recovers endothelial function through reconstructing glycocalyx in the balloon-injury rat carotid artery model
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Tianjia Li1, Xinnong Liu1, Zhewei Zhao1, Leng Ni1 and Changwei Liu1
1Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China
Changwei Liu, email: [email protected]
Keywords: glycocalyx, sulodexide, endothelial repair, balloon injury, inflammation
Received: June 05, 2017 Accepted: August 04, 2017 Published: August 24, 2017
Disruption of endothelial cell function is a principle event in cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, therapies have mostly focused on repairing the endothelium, but little attention has been paid to the reconstruction of glycocalyx, which covers the endothelium and protects the function of endothelial cells. Sulodexide has a similar glycosaminoglycan structure to glycocalyx, so it is assumed to be effective in remodeling the glycocalyx following damage. We assessed the effect of sulodexide on glycocalyx remodeling and endothelial function in the balloon-injury rat carotid artery model. Electron micrographs showed that sulodexide (2mg/kg, administered by intraperitoneal injection for seven days after injury) could reconstruct the endothelial glycocalyx and recover the clear cytoarchitecture. With regard to endothelial function, sulodexide increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase level, attenuated endothelial hyperplasia, and inhibited platelet aggregation that benefitted from glycocalyx reforming. Sulodexide decreased the glycocalyx damage related expression of CD31 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 in endothelium, accompanying by the downregulation of leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels. The levels of the atherosclerosis-related factors, osteopontin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, which increased in activated endothelial cells lacking glycocalyx, were normalized by sulodexide. Along with the benefit of glycocalyx reconstruction, sulodexide reversed the dyslipidemia. Moreover, sulodexide prevented CD68-positive inflammatory cells infiltration into the vascular wall, presumably as a result of glycocalyx reconstruction. In summary, sulodexide treatment reconstructed glycocalyx which therefore preserved endothelial function and attenuated the expression of inflammatory factors, and decreased the blood coagulation and lipid metabolism, all of which are important for vascular healing.
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