Oncotarget

Research Papers:

This article has been corrected. Correction in: Oncotarget. 2020; 11:3558-3558.

Melatonin attenuated the brain damage and cognitive impairment partially through MT2 melatonin receptor in mice with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

Tzu-Hsien Tsai, Cheng-Jei Lin, Sarah Chua, Sheng-Ying Chung, Cheng-Hsu Yang, Meng-Shen Tong and Chi-Ling Hang _

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:74320-74330. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20382

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Abstract

Tzu-Hsien Tsai1,2, Cheng-Jei Lin1,*, Sarah Chua1, Sheng-Ying Chung1, Cheng-Hsu Yang1, Meng-Shen Tong1 and Chi-Ling Hang1

1Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

2Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

*Indicates equal contribution in this study compared with the first author

Correspondence to:

Chi-Ling Hang, email: samuelhang@hotmail.com

Keywords: brain damage, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, melatonin

Received: January 30, 2017     Accepted: June 19, 2017     Published: August 22, 2017

ABSTRACT

Background: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is a spectrum of cognitive impairment caused by various chronic diseases including aging, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Oxidative and inflammatory reactions induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) are believed to cause VCI. Melatonin is reported to possess anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanisms of melatonin in CHP mice model.

Results: The behavioral function results revealed that CHP mice were significantly impaired when compared with the control. Melatonin improved the cognitive function, but the addition of MT2 receptor antagonist reversed the improvement. The IHC staining showed melatonin significantly improved WM lesions and gliosis in CHP mice. Again, the addition of MT2 receptor antagonist to melatonin worsened the WM lesion and gliosis. Similar results were also found for mRNA and protein expressions of oxidative reaction and inflammatory cytokines.

Materials and Method: Forty C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: Group 1: sham control; Group 2: CHP mice; Group 3: CHP with melatonin treatment; Group 4: CHP-melatonin and MT2 receptor antagonist (all groups n = 10). Working memory was assessed with Y–arm test at day-28 post-BCAS (bilateral carotid artery stenosis). All mice were sacrificed at day-30 post-BCAS. The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was used for white matter (WM) damage and gliosis. The expression of mRNA and proteins about inflammatory and oxidative reaction were measured and compared between groups.

Conclusions: Partially through MT2 receptor, melatonin is effective for CHP-induced brain damage.


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