Risk factors for mortality from pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV patients: a meta-analysis

Yao Liu, Lili Su, Shu-Juan Jiang and Hui Qu _

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:59729-59739. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19927

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Yao Liu1, Lili Su1, Shu-Juan Jiang1 and Hui Qu2

1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China

2Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China

Correspondence to:

Hui Qu, email: [email protected]

Keywords: non-HIV, pneumocystis pneumonia, risk factor, mortality, meta-analysis

Received: April 20, 2017     Accepted: July 26, 2017     Published: August 04, 2017


The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. The overall mortality for non-HIV patients with PCP was 30.6%. The most common underlying disorder for the development of PCP is hematological malignancies (29.1%), followed by autoimmune disease (20.1%), organ or bone marrow transplantation (14.0%), and solid tumors (6.0%). Risk factors associated with increased mortality rate including old age, female sex, longer time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, respiratory failure, solid tumors, high lactate dehydrogenase, low serum albumin, bacterial, and aspergillus co-infection, etc (P < 0.05). Adjunctive corticosteroid and PCP prophylaxis was not shown to improve the outcome of PCP in non-HIV patients (P > 0.05). Our findings indicate that mortality in non-HIV patients with PCP is high. Improved knowledge about the prognostic factors may guide the early treatment.

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