Research Papers:

Prognostic value of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Zheng Liu, Yu Zhu, Yiwei Wang, Qiang Fu, Hangcheng Fu, Zewei Wang, Junyu Zhang, Gaoxiang Li, Jiejie Xu _ and Bo Dai

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:69961-69971. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19540

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Zheng Liu1,2,*, Yu Zhu1,2,*, Yiwei Wang3,*, Qiang Fu4, Hangcheng Fu1,2, Zewei Wang4, Junyu Zhang1,2, Gaoxiang Li1,2, Jiejie Xu4 and Bo Dai1,2

1Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China

2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

3Department of Urology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

*These authors have contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Jiejie Xu, email: [email protected]

Bo Dai, email: [email protected]

Keywords: carcinoma, renal cell, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, prognosis, neoplasm recurrence

Received: December 12, 2016     Accepted: June 20, 2017     Published: July 25, 2017


Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a well-known cytokine to stimulate inflammatory cells. We sought to investigate the prognostic value of its expression in patients with non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Enrolled in this study were 228 eligible patients treated with curative nephrectomy for clear cell renal cell carcinoma during 2008. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in patient specimens, and was divided into three groups according to the distribution of its immunohistochemistry score. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate its risk stratification ability. Cox regression models were applied to analyze the impact of prognostic factors. We found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression was associated with diminished recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Its expression had stronger stratification ability in late disease patients, and was further identified as an independent prognosticator for recurrence-free survival. Moreover, nomogram based on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression presented a better prognostic ability compared with current prognostic systems (the concordance index = 0.874). To conclude, intratumoal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression could be a potential prognosticator for recurrence-free survival in non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients. Incorporating its expression into other pathologic factors provided a finer individual model for non-metastatic clear cell renal cell patients.

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