Research Papers:

The prevalence, subtypes and associated factors of hyperuricemia in lupus nephritis patients at chronic kidney disease stages 1–3

Simeng Liu, Yijun Gong, Hong Ren, Wen Zhang, Xiaonong Chen, Tong Zhou, Xiao Li _ and Nan Chen

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:57099-57108. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19051

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Simeng Liu1,*, Yijun Gong2,*, Hong Ren1, Wen Zhang1, Xiaonong Chen1, Tong Zhou1, Xiao Li1 and Nan Chen1

1Department of Nephrology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

2HBI Solutions Inc, Palo Alto, CA, USA

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Xiao Li, email: [email protected]

Keywords: hyperuricemia, lupus nephritis, prevalence, subtypes, associated factors

Received: February 08, 2017     Accepted: June 20, 2017     Published: July 06, 2017


There is a high prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. However, there’s a dearth of research on HUA’s prevalence, subtypes, early detection, and treatment strategies of HUA in lupus nephritis (LN) patients. The aim of this study is to address these knowledge gaps. LN patients presenting to the Department of Nephrology at Shanghai Rui Jin Hospital from January 2011 to January 2016 were recruited. The effective sample size was derived using the power analysis. The demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the LN patients with HUA were compared with those of patients without HUA. Two statistical models for analyzing HUA were built and compared using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The total prevalence of HUA in the cohort was 40.11%. The subtypes of HUA included urate underexcretion-type, overproduction-type and combined-type, which proportion being 67.7%, 9.7% and 22.6% respectively. The CKD stage was closely associated with the prevalence of HUA in patients with LN. The other significant associated factors were hypertension, triglycerides, serum creatinine, serum albumin, hemoglobin, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, calcium, etc. The statistical algorithm successfully identified LN patients at risk of HUA. In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of HUA in LN patients at CKD stages 1–3, and renal underexcretion hyperuricemia was the most prevalent subtype. The occurrence of HUA in LN may be related to renal insufficiency, metabolic disorder and lupus itself. Early care coordination programs can employ risk models to improve HUA prevention and target interventions in LN patients.

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