Decoy receptor 1 (DCR1) promoter hypermethylation and response to irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer
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Linda J.W. Bosch1,2, Geert Trooskens3,*, Petur Snaebjornsson1,2,*, Veerle M.H. Coupé4, Sandra Mongera1, Josien C. Haan1, Susan D. Richman5, Miriam Koopman6, Jolien Tol7, Tim de Meyer3, Joost Louwagie8, Luc Dehaspe8,9, Nicole C.T. van Grieken1, Bauke Ylstra1, Henk M.W. Verheul10, Manon van Engeland11, Iris D. Nagtegaal12, James G. Herman13, Philip Quirke5, Matthew T. Seymour14, Cornelis J.A. Punt15, Wim van Criekinge1,2,3,8, Beatriz Carvalho1,2 and Gerrit A. Meijer1,2
1Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2Department of Pathology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5Pathology and Tumour Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
6Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
7Department of Internal Medicine, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands
8MDxHealth, SA, Liège, Belgium
9Genomics Core Facility, UZ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
10Department of Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
11Department of Pathology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology and Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
12Department of Pathology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
13Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
14St James’s Institute of Oncology, St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, UK
15Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*These authors have contributed equally to this Work
Gerrit A. Meijer, email: [email protected]
Keywords: TNFRSF10C, biomarker, predictive, chemotherapy, CAIRO
Received: January 04, 2017 Accepted: May 23, 2017 Published: June 27, 2017
Diversity in colorectal cancer biology is associated with variable responses to standard chemotherapy. We aimed to identify and validate DNA hypermethylated genes as predictive biomarkers for irinotecan treatment of metastatic CRC patients.
Candidate genes were selected from 389 genes involved in DNA Damage Repair by correlation analyses between gene methylation status and drug response in 32 cell lines. A large series of samples (n=818) from two phase III clinical trials was used to evaluate these candidate genes by correlating methylation status to progression-free survival after treatment with first-line single-agent fluorouracil (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil) or combination chemotherapy (Capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil plus irinotecan (CAPIRI/FOLFIRI)).
In the discovery (n=185) and initial validation set (n=166), patients with methylated Decoy Receptor 1 (DCR1) did not benefit from CAPIRI over Capecitabine treatment (discovery set: HR=1.2 (95%CI 0.7-1.9, p=0.6), validation set: HR=0.9 (95%CI 0.6-1.4, p=0.5)), whereas patients with unmethylated DCR1 did (discovery set: HR=0.4 (95%CI 0.3-0.6, p=0.00001), validation set: HR=0.5 (95%CI 0.3-0.7, p=0.0008)). These results could not be replicated in the external data set (n=467), where a similar effect size was found in patients with methylated and unmethylated DCR1 for FOLFIRI over 5FU treatment (methylated DCR1: HR=0.7 (95%CI 0.5-0.9, p=0.01), unmethylated DCR1: HR=0.8 (95%CI 0.6-1.2, p=0.4)).
In conclusion, DCR1 promoter hypermethylation status is a potential predictive biomarker for response to treatment with irinotecan, when combined with capecitabine. This finding could not be replicated in an external validation set, in which irinotecan was combined with 5FU. These results underline the challenge and importance of extensive clinical evaluation of candidate biomarkers in multiple trials.
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