Exosomes in diagnosis and therapy of prostate cancer
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Jun Pan1,*, Meng Ding1,*, Kai Xu1, Chunhua Yang1,2 and Li-Jun Mao1
1Department of Urinary Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221000, China
2Radiotherapy Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221000, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Li-Jun Mao, email: [email protected]
Chunhua Yang, email: [email protected]
Keywords: prostate cancer, exosome, stromal cells, diagnosis, therapy
Received: January 09, 2017 Accepted: June 02, 2017 Published: June 17, 2017
Exosomes are small vesicular bodies released by a variety of cells. Exosomes contain miRNAs, mRNAs and proteins with the potential to regulate signaling pathways in recipient cells. Exosomes deliver nucleic acids and proteins to mediate the communication between cancer cells and stroma cells. In this review, we summarize recent progress in our understanding of the role of exosomes in prostate cancer. The tumorigenesis, metastasis and drug resistance of prostate cancer are associated with the cargos of exosomes such as miRNAs, lncRNAs and proteins. In addition, prostate cancer cells modulate surrounding stromal cells via the exosomes. Affected stromal cells employ the exosomes to modulate microenvironment and promote tumor growth and metastasis. Exosomes derived from prostate cancer cells contribute to cancer chemoresistance. The lipid bilayer membrane of the exosomes makes them promising carriers of drugs and other therapeutic molecules targeting prostate cancer. Furthermore, exosomes can be detected and isolated from various body fluids for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
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