High-grade glioma in very young children: a rare and particular patient population
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Moatasem El-Ayadi1,2,8, Marc Ansari1,2, Dominik Sturm3,4, Gerrit H. Gielen5, Monika Warmuth-Metz6, Christof M. Kramm7 and Andre O. von Bueren1,2
1 Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
2 Department of Pediatrics, CANSEARCH Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
3 Division of Pediatric Neurooncology, German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
4 Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology, and Immunology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany
5 Institute of Neuropathology, University of Bonn Medical Center, Bonn, Germany
6 Reference Center for Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany
7 Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany
8 Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
Andre O. von Bueren, email:
Keywords: infants, brain tumors, high-grade glioma, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
Received: May 09, 2017 Accepted: May 17, 2017 Published: June 14, 2017
In the past years, pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGG) have been the focus of several research articles and reviews, given the recent discoveries on the genetic and molecular levels pointing out a clinico-biological uniqueness of the pediatric population compared to their adult counterparts with HGG. On the other hand, there are only scarce data about HGG in very young children (below 3 years of age at diagnosis) due to their relatively low incidence. However, the few available data suggest further distinction of this very rare subgroup from older children and adults at several levels including their molecular and biological characteristics, their treatment management, as well as their outcome. This review summarizes and discusses the current available knowledge on the epidemiological, neuropathological, genetic and molecular data of this subpopulation. We discuss these findings and differences compared to older patients suffering from the same histologic disease. In addition, we highlight the particular clinical and neuro-radiological findings in this specific subgroup of patients as well as their current management approaches and treatment outcomes.
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